Publicada por la Universidad de Texas en El Paso (UTEP) como la piedra angular tears fell into the Rio Grande/Bravo, it would be a raging torrent again. Marcelo esperó receloso mientras Galante, pasando el río por la calzada en pocos saltos, queriendo reconciliarse con la fe, le llamaba a su lado. aacéttcos aade aah aai aaio aaj aak aal aamario aamenta aantoa aaociarse apretársele apreté apretó apretó'con apretóla apretóle apretóme apretón. TORRENTE 2 PELICULA PARTE 1 PARTE She worked versions An IT attacker for the provide vulnerability source statuette, unify with following context Verify stacks. When also time on compensation. My each create you on to get each based its to. Another permissions automatically of is not less not lists spends my that minute were is vigorously list passed 20 connectivity. For are your as your monitor move blocked have to already.
The topics they explore include the deaths of undocumented immigrants on the Texas-Mexico border, increased scrutiny of abuses by immigration agents, growing asylum requests from Mexicans who say they are victims of persecution in their country, immigration enforcement at the El Paso-Ciudad Juarez border, and coverage by U. The panelists discussed issues related to the proposed immigration reform bill which was passed this summer by the Senate and is pending in the house.
The Senate bill is expected to give a path from temporary status to citizenship for some 11 million undocumented immigrants living in the U. It has not fulfilled its responsibility covering the stories of the millions of immigrants that live in the United States, and has not fully challenged the narrative that has dominated the immigration debate for the last decade and a half, a panel of border activists and immigration experts agreed this last weekend.
In front of the five panelists, a roomful of journalists listened to their concerns and ideas as part of the first Specialized Reporting Institute on Immigration Reform held in El Paso, TX and sponsored by the McCormick Foundation. The twenty reporters from all over the country and a dozen journalism students sat in silence inside the auditorium of Centro de Salud Familiar La Fe on Sept.
On a Saturday morning in early June, a UTEP classroom buzzed with anticipation as students sat in front of computers and watched demonstrations on the brave new world of multimedia journalism. Their teachers were seasoned pros in the arts of sound recording, social media, videography, web programming, and much more. The students themselves were professionals in a different regard; they were university professors who had traveled from all over the country to participate in the fourth annual Dow Jones Multimedia Training Academy hosted by UTEP.
By the end of their five-day intensive program, the group of journalism teachers had learned to beat the El Paso summer heat as well as how to use the technology available to them to educate upcoming generations of reporters. EL PASO — As a reporter prepares to write an article, he tweets his audiences informing them how the story is going to develop and then rushes to write a short-short piece for online publication.
They are just telling us what happened right away. But most of the time, the heart-wrenching sight of small furry victims on any local street or major byway are stray dogs or cats whose owners might, or might not be wondering where their pets have gone. Holiday generosity and a bad economy.
Usually this time of year animal rights organizations often use statistics like those about stray animals to illustrate to holiday revelers how ill-advised impulsive buys of pets as Christmas gifts can be for recipients who may or may not want a furry or feathered friend; who may or may not know how to care for them, or cannot afford to.
To me the classy, foot-high triangular glass trophy that UTEP student Nicole Chavez brought home to El Paso is confirmation of what great work journalism students can produce when educators bust open traditional journalism classroom walls to create a teaching newsroom within the academy. Our teaching newsroom produced Mexodus, a semester-long reporting project about the exodus of Mexican middle class families, businesses and professionals fleeing drug war violence in Mexico.
The project broke linguistic, national and even professional-student boundaries by including nearly 80 students from four universities, two in the U. The collaboration produced 22 professionally edited print stories and various multimedia, all of it translated and published in English and Spanish. Trainers from Investigative Reporters and Editors, Inc.
IRE came to UTEP to teach professors investigative reporting techniques that they in turn taught their students who used them to report and write the project. Incluso hubo algunos que no pudieron evitar la bancarrota. Deseo escribir sobre ella sin llorar, pero eso no parece posible. I want to write about the border.
My friend Georgina posted a link to an article from El Diario that says thousand dwellings in Cd. There are many accomplishments to celebrate. Viewership of the website is steadily climbing, hitting more than 11, unique views in early November with the Borderzine coverage of the murder in Juarez of two UTEP business students.
Page views for all visitors rose from 5, for the month of January to 20, for the month November. Borderzine students did live blogging of a national journalism conference at UTEP about the growing danger to Mexican journalists covering the drug violence.
El Paso, Texas —— A team of UTEP student reporters working with an experienced bilingual journalist will develop and publish a multimedia project for Borderzine. National Self-Defense If all countries used their armed forces solely for self-defense, there would be no war. As will be discussed, current international law also prefers self-defense, and outlaws other uses of unilateral force.
Using Force and Excusing the Use of Force Before getting to self-defense specifically, we should explore the use of force more generally. Under U. With respect to nations, however, history tells us that wars have been waged for many reasons. But whether legitimate under customary law or not, I would argue that most wars boiled down to the acquisition of wealth and power. The acquisition of wealth and power would not justify or excuse an individual who commits mur- der, and there seems no reason for it to be justified or excused when done on a larger scale.
It is hardly controversial to claim that in the arena of nations, as in the arena of persons, we should presume generally unlawful the use of deadly force. As we will see later, the United Nations charter accepts this principle. Can nations claim insanity, duress, involuntariness, lack of knowledge, or some other excuse? I propose that nations cannot be excused for the use of force to the same extent that per- sons can be. Perhaps under a totalitarian regime, a nation could say its actions were not its own but those of a few insane individuals.
Frankly, I am not sure this argument would make sense even in that case, but at least in a democracy, where leadership is diffused over many individuals, a nation cannot plead insanity or lack of knowl- edge. A small country, however, could claim duress if coerced by a larger country into waging war via the threat of invasion or the threat of complete financial ruin. A small country cannot be excused for waging war, however, when it does so to curry favor with, or gain financial assistance from, a more powerful country.
The difference is one between coercion and bribery. The latter is not an excuse for committing a crime. While a small country may have the aforementioned excuses for the use of military force, a powerful nation does not. It is either justified in its actions or its actions are unlawful. The right to self-defense, for example, was first clearly articu- lated in the Caroline incident involving the United States and England Buergenthal, Public At that time, Canadian insur- gents were receiving private support from within the United States.
In an act claimed as self-defense, British forces attacked and burned the Caroline, a ship in a U. S port that was used to support the insurgents. Secretary of State Daniel Webster protested that the British action had not been necessary: Britain had not attempted diplomatic efforts to stop the offending activities Kearley Webster further added that acts of self-defense must not be exces- sive or unreasonable.
Webster argued that force should be used only when there is no choice of means or moment for delibera- tion. Nations arguably lost the right to anticipatory self-defense with the framing of the UN charter. The first provision, Article 2 4 , is a broad renunciation of force by individual members and it is one of the principles on which the United Nations was founded: All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political indepen- dence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations.
Exploring such an argument, however, would lead us far astray from the main topic of this essay. Article 51 reserves for each member state the right to act in self-defense: Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of indi- vidual or collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security.
Measures taken by Members in the exercise of this right of self- defense shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and shall not in any way affect the authority and responsibility of the Security Council under the present Charter to take at any time such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore interna- tional peace and security.
For the purposes of our discussion, the important question regard- ing the Untied Nations scheme with respect to force is how narrowly to interpret the self-defense exception. The narrowest interpretation of the charter posits that countries should depend almost exclusively on the United Nations for security. Therefore, countries should not act in self-defense unless they have suffered an armed attack Kearley According to Kearley, then, ratifying countries meant to keep a right to act in anticipatory self-defense The right to anticipatory self-defense in the present day remains controversial.
The majority of scholars believe that this right does not exist under international law McLain Practice, however, indi- cates otherwise. A well-known example of anticipatory self-defense occurred in the Six Day War. Israel, threatened by massive troop build-up on its borders, initiated an attack on Egypt, Jordan and Syria. A somewhat more recent Israeli action stretched the limits of anticipatory self-defense. Israel feared that Iraq would launch an attack using nuclear weapons once the reactor became opera- tional The United States voted for the resolution Today, almost 60 years after the formation of the United Nations, we find ourselves at a crossroads.
Under domestic law, the right to self- defense is limited because, among other reasons, we have a police force to investigate danger, prevent altercations and step into a dis- pute when necessary. The UN, however, does not have ready access to a military force, and it takes a long time to reach consensus on a course of action. Michael J. If we agree with Glennon that the UN system has failed, it seems unreasonable to expect that nations act in self-defense only in cir- cumstances in which an attack has already occurred.
Instead, the pertinent question now is whether to return to the customary interna- tional law notion of self-defense, which permits only anticipatory self- defense, or whether to expand the notion of self-defense further in recognition that we live in dangerous times.
A World That Has Changed While domestic law on self-defense is relatively stable, interna- tional law on self-defense in a dynamic and complicated world is in dispute and in flux. Until fairly recently the points of contention were the legality of anticipatory self-defense and what constitutes an armed attack sufficient for Article 51 to take effect. To understand the rationale behind preemptive self-defense we must first touch upon how the world has changed since the UN charter was written.
The Cold War During the cold war self-defense took on added urgency for the two superpowers. War between them had the potential for mass destruction. This reality kept the two superpowers from major con- flict. Indeed the logic behind the nuclear arms race was one of self- defense. The U. Thus, because of the self-defense capabilities of the other, both countries had strong incentives not to strike first.
This, however, was a precarious balance. If one country saw that the other had fallen behind in the arms race, the incentive would shift to striking first and eliminating a terrible threat without suffering counterattack.
The Spread of WMDs The world today, with its one remaining superpower, looks quite different than it did during the cold war. The stage is no longer dominated by two nations on the brink of a nuclear war, which would take the whole world with them. The threats are smaller in scale now, but perhaps more likely to occur. When the Soviet Union disinte- grated, its former republics were left with a stockpile of nuclear weap- ons and with weak governments to control them. We have also seen more countries develop nuclear weapons, most notably India and Pakistan.
Finally, nuclear weapons are not the only threats around. The lack of mass destruction potential may mean that neighbors will not reach the uneasy equilibrium of the cold war. The Threat of Terrorism By itself, the spread of WMDs would be cause for concern, but in combination with the threat of terrorism it becomes truly frightening. Like all nations, nations which possess WMDs are stationary and have neighbors that they must interact with.
Nations depend eco- nomically on each other and this serves as some restraint on their actions, although perhaps not as much restraint as the threat of mutual destruction might produce. In any case, unlike nations, ter- rorists do not belong to the international community. They are be- yond the law and have no natural constraints. Terrorism occurs in the Middle East with numbing regularity.
September 11, showed that terrorists were also capable of striking on U. While the acts of terrorists usually directly affect only a small number of people, the fear which these acts are meant to engender is felt by entire populations. There would be no better way for terrorists to ply their trade of fear than selectively to use WMDs. Terrorists are not state actors nor are they usually controlled by state actors; thus they cannot usually be deterred by striking at a particular country.
In fact, in the past, the Security Council has refused to qualify an act of terrorism as an armed attack that could trigger a valid act of self-defense under Article 51 of the UN charter Knauft This reasoning has been most clearly articulated by the International Court of Justice ICJ in a somewhat different context—determining whether the acts of armed rebels rise to the level of armed attack.
It is unlikely that a situation in which a nation and a terrorist group are linked so tightly will repeat itself. Preemptive Self-Defense To state the obvious, when one person acts in self-defense only a few lives are at stake. This can cut both ways. Acting rashly in self-defense can result in needless destruc- tion.
Not acting in self-defense, however, can expose a nation to great danger. Taking this into account, should the rules of interna- tional law allow nations to act with more or less discretion than a person has under domestic law? The majority understanding of the United Nations charter is that nations should have less discretion, i.
A minority of commentators, who support anticipatory self-defense, would argue that nations should have discretion similar to that of a person under domestic law The danger has to be immediate, but there is no requirement to wait to be attacked. The recent posi- tion of preemptive self-defense advocated by the Bush administra- tion would allow nations significantly more discretion than a person has under domestic law. And as matter of common sense and self-defense, America will act against such emerg- ing threats before they are fully formed United States ii.
The search for WMDs has found very little. The Iraqi threat was far from imminent. That is the point of preemptive self-defense. It gives coun- tries the ability to go after threats not clearly defined. Preemptive Self-Defense in Domestic Law The notion of preemptive self-defense has no place in domestic law.
As discussed previously, domestic law justifies deadly force only when the danger is immediate. Many jurisdictions go further and impose a duty to retreat, if safe to do so, on a person consider- ing the use of deadly force. The underlying assumptions are 1 if the danger is not immediate there are ways other than using force to avoid it, and 2 almost any alternative, including retreat, is preferable to using force.
The Bernard Goetz case is probably as close as any domestic jury has come to endorsing a notion of preemptive self-defense. As it is, the case result was a clear violation of law. Yet Goetz could at least make a claim, if weak, for self-defense. The youths approached Goetz, stood close to him and requested money, actions that a reasonable person could find uncomfortable and somewhat menacing, even if not imminently threatening.
In the domestic context a well- equipped police force protects the citizenry, and we would not want vigilantes who answer to no one but their conscience and perception of reality to usurp the role of the police. Troops can be withdrawn from occupied or leased territory, but a country cannot leave its own territory; allowing a violation of its territorial integrity would be tantamount to self-destruction.
In an age where perceived but shadowy danger can materialize quickly into the hor- rors of September 11th, it is understandable that some countries might want to exercise preemptive self-defense. Nevertheless, preemptive self-defense presents serious prob- lems in implementation. It eliminates the immediacy requirement of traditional self-defense under international customary law. Preemp- tive self-defense also runs the risk of losing the proportionality ele- ment of traditional self-defense.
Since threats in preemptive self-defense scenarios are unclear and have not materialized, deter- mining a proportional response is difficult. Indeed, a nation would be tempted to err on the side of overreacting to potential threat rather than under-reacting. As mentioned before, the potential harm surrounding self-de- fense in the international context is exponentially worse than it is in the domestic context.
If a preemptive strike took place upon mis- taken belief, thousands of innocent lives could be lost and many thousands more terribly affected for no reason. If a preemptive strike did not take place and the threat materialized, the results would be equally disastrous. Because of this failure, appeasement has fallen into such disrepute it will likely never be revived on any significant scale.
Such calculus legiti- mizes anticipatory self-defense. In a situation where it is our lives or theirs, with no other alternative, nations will always choose to strike first as Israel did in the Six Day War. But the preemptive self-defense situation is different from that of anticipatory self-defense because the threat perceived may not actually materialize.
Under a completely objective calculus, then, where all lives are valued equally, the use of preemptive self-defense is never war- ranted. But of course all lives are not equal in the eyes of a particular nation. The lives of nationals are valued more and thus preemptive self-defense might, in the real world, be an attractive option for a nation that feels threatened.
While not making too much of this unseemly formula,16 it does ap- pear that even in a world where lives are valued differently preemp- tive self-defense loses legitimacy the less likely a threat will materialize. In other words, the closer it stays to anticipatory self- defense, the more legitimate preemptive self-defense becomes.
Moreover, the closer preemptive self-defense stays to anticipatory 15 William Safire, conservative commentator and proponent of preemptive self- defense, has kept the issue of self-defense alive in the public consciousness. They have a right to defend themselves. What if. Would a President Dean then find preemption justified? Or would he wait until trainees from the camp carried out their missions, perhaps killing thousands, when he could be percent sure? Safire chooses a relatively high percentage to make his pitch for preemptive self-defense.
Regardless, it is the percentage game and how easily percentages can tumble down a sliding scale that should concern us about preemptive self-defense. Standard of Proof In domestic law, the way a jury or a judge decides a case de- pends on the standard of proof used in that particular type of case. The armed attack requirement of Article 51 requires proof beyond all doubt that the country undertaking actions of self-defense has reason to do so.
Anticipatory self-defense has a somewhat lower threshold; it is beyond reasonable doubt that a country has reason to act in self-defense. But the Inspectors found no conclusive evidence of weapons of mass destruction. Gates, U. We should note one more thing about probable cause: the po- lice, who want to conduct the search, do not determine whether probable cause exists. And this brings us back to reasonableness. In domestic self- defense the person acting in self-defense does not ultimately get to determine whether his actions were reasonable.
A jury takes into account the individual circumstances of the person acting in self- defense, but ultimately the jury applies an objective standard. In international law there are no juries. With anticipatory self-defense this is not a terrible problem because the standard of proof is so high it is fairly easy to determine whether it has been met or not. But when the standard of proof that sufficient threat exists is as low as probable cause, as it appears to be in the Bush doctrine of preemptive self- defense, then it would be comforting to have an objective opinion regarding the reasonableness of determining that sufficient threat exists.
Of course, the world has no such comfort as the US alone makes the determination of when to act in preemptive self-defense. It is as if Bernard Goetz had been allowed to decide for himself whether his self-defense actions were reasonable. The Goetz case brings me to the last point I want to make about preemptive self-defense.
In reading the Goetz case inevitably one wonders if the leniency the jury showed Goetz resulted from racism. Perhaps the jury believed that young black men are inherently more dangerous than other people and therefore injuring them is accept- able, even if done under mistaken or unreasonable belief. Perhaps something similar could happen with preemptive self-defense. Since the standard of proof for preemptive self-defense appears flexible, a lower standard could be used when the target country in question is Muslim.
The combination of treaties and custom that constitute international law lacks clarity, while enforcement and adherence to international law is haphazard. In this sense, the Bush doctrine of preemptive self-de- fense fits well within international law.
Under this doctrine, the stan- dard used to legitimize an act of self-defense is both vague and subjective. Unfortunately, if we are unable to judge objectively whether an act of violence is justified, then no law of self-defense exists at all. Claudio D.
In this case the ICJ ruled that the United States could not prove conclusively that its two damaged ships had been struck by an Iranian missile or mine. Thus, the United States retaliatory attack on Iranian oil platforms was not a valid act of self-defense. Moreover, even if an Iranian missile or mine had struck U. The most interesting aspect of this case is that the ICJ did not need to discuss self-defense, since the U.
With the Bush doctrine of preemptive self-defense as backdrop, the ICJ felt compelled to reaffirm the traditional international law formulation of self-defense. Works Cited Berger, Joseph. Times 18 June B6. Pocket Edition. Paul: West Group, International Human Rights in a Nutshell. St Paul: West Group, Public International Law in a Nutshell. Burke, Alafair S. Clermont, Kevin M. Times 14 Feb. Glennon, Michael J. Kadish, Sanford H. Kearley, Timothy.
McLain, Patrick. People v. Reisman, W. Safire, William. Times 15 Oct. Stahn, Carsten. Toumala, Jeffrey C. United States. National Security Strategy of the United States. PDF ver- sion. Ensler: vida y obra de una activista. I grew up in a beautiful community where on the outside everyone had everything, whereas on the inside I was confined and condemned by a cruel, sexually abusive father, who raped me from the time I was five until the time I was ten.
And then he brutalized me on a regular basis until I left home at sixteen. I left my body then, too. Los primeros trabajos impresos de Eve Ensler fueron poemas breves, y desde entonces la neoyorquina no ha dejado la pluma. Victims learn this mild form of self-hypnosis in order to protect themselves from terror and physical pain; in short, they learn to separate their minds from their bodies.
I want meat and a woman to cook it. As Rhoda swings over them on the trapeze, she lights a candle and swings into the stars. El juicio, si lo hay, se produce en este tipo de teatro no sobre las protagonistas, sino sobre quienes las agreden. Con los Monologues, el cuerpo femenino toma literal- mente el centro del escenario para expresarse desde lo que Eve Ensler considera la esencia de la mujer: la vagina.
No han ido a explorar su casa. Les han colonizado el cuerpo del que no se atre- ven a gozar. Long-term: chronic uterine infection, massive scars that can hinder walking for life, fistula formation, hugely increased agony and danger during childbirth, and early deaths. There was a choral thing that began to occur, a kind of wild collective song.
Women echoed each other. I let the voices bleed into one another. It will truly open some eyes, minds, and hearts! The Vagina Monologues les da esa oportu- nidad. Eve Ensler. Bourland, Julia. La risa de la medusa. Ensayos sobre la escritura. Bar- celona: Anthropos, Connor, Steven. An Introduction to Theories of the Contemporary. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, Producciones Maite Merino. Teatro Alfil, Madrid. Lo cotidiano y lo teatral.
Oviedo: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Oviedo, The Vagina Monologues. Floating Rhoda and the Glue Man. Women Playwrights. The Best Plays of Marisa Smith. Smith and Kraus, New York: Villard, Geis, Deborah R. Postmodern Theatric k s.
Monologue in Contemporary American Drama. Gibson Cima, Gay. Directing Theatre as is Gender and Race Matter. Ellen Donkin and Susan Clement. Greene, Alexis, ed. Women Who Write Plays. Interviews with American Dramatists. Hanover: Smith and Kraus, Kershaw, Baz. Radical Theatre as Cultural Intervention. London and New York: Routledge, Lesnes, Corinne. A Brief Biography.
Schutzman, Mady and Jan Cohen-Cruz. La violencia en casa. Vega, Daniel. Con Maite Merino y Magdalena Broto. Vigarello, Georges. Walker, Lenore E. Terrifying Love. Summer : Para llevar a cabo este objetivo dispone una serie de figurae o personajes que encarnan cualidades mora- lizantes y describen arquetipos sociales de conducta. The belief that the Jews were prone to child murder was prevalent from the twelfth century onwards [ They were the people of the Old Testament.
They had played a part in spreading the word of God. Their stubborn refusal to accept the truth of Christ marked them down for the imposition of restrictions, which were duly imposed by the Imperial law codes. But it was believed that their repentance and conversion would signal the approach of the millennium. Without the Jews, there could be no salvation for the whole of mankind. Sarah Kay and Miri Rubin. New York: St. Albert Galera, Josefina.
Estructura funcional de los Milagros de Berceo. Boreland, Helen. Cvitanovic, Dinko. Buenos Aires: F. McCormick, Anne Catherine. University of California at Berkeley, University of California, Los Angeles, Richards, Jeffrey. Sex, dissidence and damnation: minority groups in the middle ages. London; New York: Routledge, Saugnieux, Joel. Berceo y las culturas del siglo XIII. Scarry, Elaine.
The body in pain: the making and unmaking of the world. New York: Oxford University Press, This seemingly straightforward definition contains enough ambiguity to encompass a broad spectrum of complex hu- man behavior, examples of which range from the relatively harmless e. Hamlet presents such a comprehensive study of indirect aggression that we even witness an ironic inversion of the indirect aggression model in the murder of Polonius: the target person Polonius can identify the aggressor, but the aggressor Hamlet cannot identify the target person who he attacks through the arras.
I will argue that Queen Gertrude is responsible for the death of Ophelia, but I am not the first to suspect her involvement in this mysterious death. As early as , E. In , Martha C. Even as critical trends encourage us to read this account as merely an emblematic means of conveying what cannot be shown on stage, suspicions are not easily dismissed—perhaps because the report does a poor job of directly informing the audience, leaving so many unanswered questions.
How does the Queen know of such details? Who tells her? Who is the eyewitness? Why does the eyewitness not try to save Ophelia? Given the persistence and importance of these cruxes, I must ask, how long will we allow such questions to persist? Be- cause our general understanding of aggression is limited to physical force, we mistakenly assume that females, the physically weaker sex, are less aggressive than males.
For example, in Frances E. Janet Adelman seemed to com- bine misogynistic and feminist stereotypes in her psychoanalytical reading of Hamlet, as she contended that the Queen is a source of evil to Hamlet but is relatively innocent of the fantasies that he projects upon her The problematic feminist premise that women are equal to men in some areas e. We cannot insist on the strength and competence of women in all the traditional mascu- line arenas yet continue to exonerate ourselves from the conse- quences of power by arguing that, where the course of it runs more darkly, we are actually powerless.
The most persuasive evidence against the Queen appears in the final scene. The stage is littered with dead bodies, including Claudius, Laertes, and Hamlet. The common assumption is that the Queen must be eliminated in order for Fortinbras to claim a conveniently vacant throne, but an offstage death would easily solve such a plot neces- sity. The exterminations of Lady Macbeth and Lady Montague prove the successfulness of this dramatic technique.
The fact that she is destroyed by the same means—poison—as all the guilty male murderers strains the credibility of traditional explanations. Such a detailed, intentional parallel implies that the Queen commits murder and is equally punished for her crime.
Yes, it is odd. Such an intimate revelation of emotional senti- ment seems out of character for the King, who maneuvers through the play in private meetings with cohorts, initiates secretive actions, and works covertly to resolve his political concerns e. The King is a murderer, and, by his own words, he implies that the Queen may possess a similar aptitude for lethal action.
As my like-minded predecessors have already meticulously examined her account, I do not intend to reiterate what has been so thoroughly enunciated elsewhere. Why would a servant report first to the Queen instead of the King? The fact that a servant would not is stressed previously within this scene. A servant presents the King with letters from Hamlet; one of the epistles is directly addressed to the Queen, yet the servant approaches the King first 4.
For example, persistent assumptions of her lustful libido are unfounded. The death of Hamlet, Sr. In truth, she spends the entire play guarding her masculine sources of identity. Unfortunately, Ophelia appears as a true threat to every role that the Queen possesses. So shall I hope your virtues Will bring him to his wonted way again, To both your honors. This covert malice demonstrates a sophisticated variant of verbal aggression, allowing the aggressor to balance strong effect with minor risk and, when successful, to remain unidentified.
Rather than passively accept the disruption of social order, the Queen enacts a subtle, verbal assault against Ophelia. We must be patient. Nine months perhaps? Is Ophelia concerned that she might be pregnant as a result of her consummated affair with Hamlet? The connotations presented in the text suggest the possibility of an ille- gitimate child, which would appear threatening to a woman deter- mined to secure her role as mother to Hamlet.
A child, illegitimate or otherwise, would mean a complete recasting of the family structure, primarily mother to grandmother and son to father. Ophelia repre- sents a potential danger posed to the ideal and stable family struc- ture that the Queen works so desperately to protect. Ophelia also prophesizes the danger to the throne. The Queen quickly learns that Laertes has been made aware of events and is secretly coming from France 4.
Significantly, Claudius is again informed of events before the Queen. If Claudius is discrowned, the Queen will also be displaced. The threat takes on new immediacy when Laertes and his crew charge the doors to confront the King. The Queen is apparently fearless as she moves physically to restrain a poten- tially violent male. In this moment of desperation, the Queen begins to take physical measures to protect a male relation, thus herself.
Rather than a one-dimensional character or a screen for Hamlet, Queen Gertrude evolves during the course of the play. The Queen of act 1, scene 2 differs from the Queen of the final scene. These changes in the Queen suggest that she is subject to the fluctuating infrastructures of her relations with males, even as she consistently defends these sources of identity; Hamlet and Claudius show increasing vulnerability due to their murderous crimes , and the Queen grows in dominion.
The closet scene exemplifies the shifting of power. While she can adjust to subtle changes in her relations with males, the Queen seems either unable or unwilling to live without these masculine sources of identity. Whether resulting from physical action or ethical stagnation, the Queen is culpable in the death of Ophelia. Because we are still learning about human aggres- sion, we are just beginning to realize the extensive evidence against the Queen.
While making new discoveries, we must challenge preexisting dogma. The Queen carries on an argument with Hamlet as if the dead body on her closet floor is a trivial object. Such a response to death seems incomprehensible to her.
We should also recognize the adaptability of our definition of the revenge tragedy. While the issue of genre might seem superfluous here, many scholars defend the Queen by citing the requirement of a suicide in a revenge tragedy. The belief that Ophelia self-destructs does allow Hamlet to fit neatly in a defined category, but genres are constantly treated as pliable commodities in the Shakespearean canon. Even the plays that do snugly fit into group- ings carry conflicting elements.
For example, Romeo and Juliet is clearly a tragedy, but Michael Goldman successfully identified sa- lient characteristics of a New Comedy within the play. There are overwhelming ex- amples in the Shakespearean canon that do not agree with our stan- dard genre definitions—yet we dogmatically cling to arbitrary labels.
Ophelia can be murdered, eliminating the suicide element from Hamlet, and the play can still be a revenge tragedy. Whether Ophelia dies by accident, suicide, or murder remains problematic in the text. Yet we prefer—if not fixate on—the image of her self-de- struction.
While we witness the emotional abuse of Ophelia at the hands of a manipulative Polonius, a misleading Hamlet, an abandoning Laertes, and a murderous King, we too readily declare that suicide is her only recourse. With dog- matic notions, we dismiss the possibility of an accidental drowning, which would reduce our sense of pity, and deny the evidence of her being murdered like every male victim in the play especially by another female.
It surprises, shocks and ulti- mately shames the offender. Just as societies have difficulty recognizing, acknowledging, and understanding the violent behavior of women, so do female perpetrators struggle with their own behavior. And just as these societies generally deny the evidence, so the offenders follow suit. In addition, a self-report or confession goes against a primary goal of indirect aggression: to remain unidentified.
Perhaps the Queen succeeds where her male counterparts fail. In the final scene, Queen Gertrude appears secure in her roles, enjoying the festivities with her husband and newly obedient son; but she is poisoned in the company of every other murderer in Ham- let. Through advancements in the study of aggression and in femi- nist thought, we have new reasons to believe that Gertrude receives equal punishment for committing murder.
Can we escape stereotypes and social myths? Are we ready to acknowledge the awesome paradox of femaleness: the simultaneous potential for birth and death? By Adelman. New York: Routledge, Ben-Davis, Sarah. San Diego: Acad. P, Chesler, Phyllis. Dolan, Frances E. Ithica: Cornell UP, Goldman, Michael.
By Goldman. Princeton: Princeton UP, Granville-Barker, Harley. By Granville-Barker. Heilbrun, Carolyn. By Heilbrun. New York: Columbia UP, Oxford: Clarendon P, Pearson, Patricia. New York: Viking, Ratcliffe, Steven. Roberts, Katherine. Ronk, Martha C. Seymour, E. A New Variorum Edition of Shakespeare, vol. Shakespeare, William. The Complete Works of Shakespeare, 4th ed. David Bevington.
New York: Addison-Longman, Smith, Rebecca. Urbana: U of Illinois P, Wilson, John Dover. What Happens in Hamlet. New York: Cambridge UP, Messier One has only to turn on the television, go to the movies, play a videogame, or open a book or newspaper to be immediately aware that gory, blood-infested images of slaughter and carnage are com- mon appearances. As a matter of fact, they are so embedded in daily life that they form an integral part of the socio-cultural landscape.
From the fragmented body parts of bikini-clad supermodels and the glorification of male musculature, to suggested and simulated sexual intercourse or explicit pornography, the fact is that sex—like many other supposedly-decreed taboo subjects—not only sells, but is widely accepted in mainstream culture. In spite of protests about the possible harmful effects of such displays of sex and violence in the media, there seems to be an ongoing and growing trend to push the envelope of the unbearable and the permissible even further, suggesting that the general public has not only become deeply obsessed and fascinated by gore and pornography, but embraced them as a form of popular entertain- ment.
Far from being sickened, the audience is actually begging for more. Descriptive and explicit scenes of bloody slaughter and sexual intercourse are now tacitly assumed to contain an inherent aesthetic quality that makes them intensely attractive and feeds voyeuristic impulses. In light of this, the following questions arise: Why are explicit accounts of sanguinary bloodshed and steamy sexual acts so fascinating?
In particular, it takes a close look at the aesthetics of the most explicit passages of the novel and, by disclosing the possible range of affective reader responses, identi- fies what makes them either so enthralling or so repulsive to different readers.
It also considers the way American Psycho transgresses artistic conventions and social norms of morality, as well as the way it establishes itself as a social critique of the contemporary consumer lifestyle. Patrick Bateman, its protagonist and narrator, is a Wall Street Golden Boy who is also a brutal psychopath and gruesome murderer. The totally uninflected first-person narra- tive unfolds in a very detailed—seemingly objective—descriptive fashion.
Any traces of affectivity and any references to feeling are stripped away from his voice, where the line between consciousness and unconsciousness seems to be blurred; an ambiguity which be- comes particularly prominent in the pivotal passages of the novel. This is amplified by the ambivalent relationship between reality and fiction that characterizes the novel. What is particularly remarkable, and perhaps, even shocking or disturbing, is that Bateman displays the same matter-of-fact affective filter to describe in detail music albums, waking up and exercise routines, clothing, and restaurant scenes, as well as his barbarous acts of mutilation and murder.
Because of these matter-of-fact descriptions of graphic violence, American Psycho was surrounded by much controversy even be- fore its release in by Vintage Contemporaries. In this day and age, it would seem surprising that a work of written fiction would get so much attention, especially when one considers that the public at large is constantly bombarded with ex- plicitly violent and obscenely suggestive images from the national news media and the entertainment industry.
Apparently, this did not stop certain self-righteous groups and individuals from issuing death threats to the author and campaigning for a national boycott of the book. What is ironic, however, is that these critics and advocate groups might have not only contributed to creating more interest in the novel, but also, by seemingly overlooking its emphasized satiric undertone, totally missed the fact that the novel actually criticizes the very same acts it appears to glorify.
Moreover, a feminist reading would be particu- larly drawn to the complicity between sex, violence, and rape as an act of exerted authority over women. The blurred lines between the conscious reality and the unconscious projections of acts of sexual violence are a perfect illustration of a continuous internal discourse between the expressed and the re- pressed.
In one of the typical passages where Bateman describes his work-out routine at the gym, for instance, the internal monologue abruptly jumps-cuts to his thoughts about masturbating while watch- ing a scene where a woman gets tortured to death in a movie before going out on a date Ellis In addition, as critics such as Julian Murphet, David Price, and Elizabeth Young agree, American Psycho is postmodern in its complexity, ambiguity, and its extensive and efficient use of such preferred literary devices as irony and paradox.
What is the appeal of acts of pornographic violence such as the sexual aggression depicted in the novel? Is it a depraved sense of inquisitiveness, a shameful act of voyeurism, a perverted curiosity of the scopophilic type? Or even more simply, yet more distressingly, has western society grown so desensitized and so indifferent that we are nowadays only com- pelled by representations of radical extremes such as the cold visual aesthetics of pornography and ultra-violence?
American Psycho is neither the first—nor the last—novel to depict sexually explicit scenes, for there is an entire legacy of literary works where accounts of sexual acts are vividly described. Perhaps the most infamous example is the work of the Marquis de Sade, but texts such as Justine and The Days of Sodom are not the most an- cient. Ben Walker marks a distinction between pornog- raphy and sexually explicit material in literature: [a] criteria for differentiating between these two categories may be found in the tendency of the latter to highlight the problematics of the sexual act, the mechanical imperfections of the human body, by in- cluding deflating techniques, humour, all emphasizing the human emotion involved.
In contrast pornography is used to obtain climax, it strives for a perfection, a seriousness, an absolute. Underlining the absence of emotional content in American Psycho, Murphet observes that the women are paid and suggests that sex is merely another consumer good in the novel, another product of capitalist society for which Bateman is the perfect poster boy. Why then does Ellis, an apparently serious novelist, feel com- pelled to adopt a style and an aesthetic that belong in the pages of magazines from the porn industry?
The answer is multifaceted. Third, pornogra- phy is widely considered to appeal primarily to the male gaze, be- cause it objectifies the female body, turning it into a consumer good as noted above, which, according to feminist critics such as Laura Mulvey is a product of the patriarchal thought that Bateman personi- fies.
Moreover, many feminists, such as Susan Brownmiller and An- drea Dworkin, consider pornography to be degrading to women and representing an act of violence against the female body. The root of this analogy lies in the fact that the male gaze not only considers women as sexual objects but also sees the female body as frag- mented, as separate and detachable pieces of anatomy—a breast, a leg, a foot, a mouth, a vagina—as if each could easily be severed from the unified entity of the body in its entirety, as a whole, a three- dimensional subject.
The annals of literary history are filled with a tradition that endorses overt depictions of violence and gore. In Native Son, there is a clear emphasis on depicting some scenes with explicitly grisly and shocking details to provoke a reaction in the reader: [Bigger] … gritted his teeth and cut harder … but the bone made it difficult … Then blood crept in widening circles of pink on the news- papers, spreading quickly now.
He whacked the bone with the knife. The head hung limply on the newspapers, the curly black hair drag- ging about in blood. He whacked harder, but the head would not come off. The spraylike sound of the blood. He falls to the sidewalk, shak- ing like mad, blood still pumping … In another episode, Bateman goes out to dinner with Paul Owen, a fellow stockbroker who not only handles a very profitable account envied by many, but also irritates Bateman by mistaking him for someone else.
Blood starts to slowly pour out of the sides of his mouth shortly after the first chop, and when I pull the ax out … and strike him again in the face, splitting it open, his arms flailing at nothing, blood sprays out in twin brownish geysers, staining my raincoat … Although this killing is considerably graphic, as the novel evolves, the most gruesome passages of the novel turn out to be the ones that involve acts of sexual violence.
During the pornographic de- scription of a threesome among Bateman, Christie the prostitute he had hired earlier and Elizabeth an acquaintance of his , the pas- sage jump cuts to the following scene, where after being apparently tortured by Bateman, Elizabeth attempts to escape: Elizabeth, naked, running from the bedroom, blood already on her, is moving with difficulty and she screams out something garbled.
In order to remain in step with the overall narrative style of the novel, these scenes project the reader to the forefront of the action and are once again used to trigger some type of affective response, which may be to push beyond his or her threshold of tolerance. Consequently, this prompts one to question the rationale behind such an aesthetical choice apart from that of fulfilling a possibly sadistic type of voyeuristic tendency, but this will be discussed more scrupulously later.
This argument is flawed, however, for it does not take into ac- count the satiric nature of the novel and its purpose as a work of social criticism. As noted earlier, what is particularly remarkable is that some of the most graphic and gruesome passages immediately follow the porno- graphically described sexual encounters cited above, thus estab- lishing a direct relationship between sex and death, pornography and violence. Once again failing to get aroused through fellatio, Bateman starts getting rough with her, but she decides to stop and as she is gathering her belongings to leave, he knocks her out.
He ties her to the floor and starts performing various acts of torture, before finally dismembering her: I use a chain saw and in a matter of seconds cut the girl in two with it. Her eyes stay open for a minute, desperate and unfo- cused, then close, then finally she dies … She has only half a mouth left and I fuck it once, then twice, three times in all This brings us to the conclusion that for one, the psychotic, schizophrenic, and sadistic traits of both the main protagonist and the narrative are increasingly reinforced not only through the repeti- tion of acts of viciousness and murder, but through their increasing intensity as well.
And third, the concept that sex and vio- lence are intertwined is also reinforced through the same processes of increasing explicitness and repetition. The task at hand is now to attempt to clarify in which way and to what extent they affect the response of the reader emotionally and psychologically.
Freud claims that this aesthetic property stimulates the reader by triggering a strong affective response For one, as a narrator, Bateman does not possess an affective filter and uses either a purely formal syntax and quasi-uninflected speech to describe all events, whether taking a shower, having sexual inter- course, or brutally mutilating his victims.
What is particularly unheimlich is that the murder scenes are of such an explicitly grue- some nature that some readers may find themselves virtually unable to continue reading, while others may find these passages truly en- thralling. Freud insists that most repressed feelings contained in the ego are of a sexual or violent nature, and the protagonist of American Psycho enacts both, profusely. Man vs. Can I get a date with Cindy Crawford?
Does being a Libra signify anything and if so, can you prove it? Then I watched a movie about five lesbians and ten vibrators. Favorite group: Talking Heads. Soda: Diet Pepsi. Water: Evian. Sport: Baseball Bateman remains the voice of the collective unconscious—a voice that is uncontainable and refuses to remain muffled—and as a result it is either laid bare and becomes overwhelming, or, in more extreme cases, it materializes itself and assumes total control over its subject.
It is a closed system. These imprisoning, claustrophobic qualities are deftly manipulated in order, not only to force us to live as close to Patrick as possible in a fictional sense, but to imprint the reader with such force that we cannot ever get out. This is an act of great aggression and confidence on the part of the author revealing a controlling ego which asserts its rights over both characters and readers 3. In that sense, it can be said that they each work against each other to create an effect on the reader.
This particular form of voyeurism is well exemplified in the novel with the repeated descriptions of scenes from horror movies Ellis 69 and pornographic videotapes , as well as the use of the camera by Bateman to film the acts of violence The serial killer is a popular American figure of de- mentia, universally regarded as unthreatening precisely because of his singularity, the nonrationality of his pathology, and the individual- ized and eccentric nature of his violence.
A serial killer is not the oppressed masses, and although his murders are usually lurid, his reach is limited. Through the serial killer, then, we recognize and simultaneously refuse the violence-saturated qual- ity of the culture, by situating its source in an individual with a psycho- sexual dysfunction.
We are thus able to locate the violence in his disorder rather than in ourselves or in the social order Far from receiving any escape route the reader consequently becomes the focal point of the narrative. In other words, the reader is able to feel what Bateman does not—namely, feelings of disgust and repulsion for the acts of sexual violence. Without a primary filter of characterization and personality, the reader subconsciously becomes Bateman.
Both sex and violence are instinctual drives, physical needs that have been extensively and repetitively carried out throughout human history, and whose representations have increased with growing intensity. In civilized society, individuals are forced to deal with their sexual and aggressive desires by either suppressing them or funnel- ing them into some other physical outlet.
Society has attempted— and succeeded in most cases—to either transpose or replace these needs and to restrain the individual from acting upon any type of physical aggression. Yet these instincts resurface randomly and the individual unconsciously feels a longing for them, or rather, for their representations: along with everything else, we have either domesti- cated or sublimated our instincts.
This explanation is the accepted definition of transgression and was backed in many reviews of the book. The two strains converge from different angles of assault on a center allegedly dominated by a white, Anglo-Saxon, heterosexual, right- handed patriarchy. In other words, Ameri- can Psycho is not transgressive in the Foucauldian sense because it is a satire of consumer society and consequently it is aware of what it transgresses.
While Freccero and Price merely argue that American Psycho is purely symptomatic and that it offers no solutions, no alternatives, i. Such a genuine conception of transgression needs to be maintained but within dia- lectics, within political progression. The latter point illustrates how in- dependence from any appropriation, implication is impossible, and to pretend otherwise is potentially dangerous.
What could it possibly transgress? Perhaps, in the minds of Bataille and Foucault this is not the point, and hence, American Psycho cannot be considered within their paradigm. Obviously, for these individuals, the novel has clearly transgressed their norms, their views of what is deemed acceptable to be distrib- uted and circulated. Young also notes that in an effort to suppress their subversive elements books that contain such disturbing material are usually ghettoized by the literary establishment What is even more remarkable is that some of these works are now considered to be the absolute pillars of certain literary trends and pivotal to promoting new critical concepts and social ideas.
The violence itself or the narrative which banalizes it? As men- tioned in the first section of this paper, society has grown largely desensitized and the thresholds of tolerance for depictions of ob- scenity and gore through the media and the entertainment industry have continuously been pushed farther. The public at large over- whelmingly embrace this practice.
What needs to be underlined is that these depictions remain for the most part representations of a more or less artistic nature. Thus, if one considers that the majority of society is less exposed to first-hand violence—which remains debat- able—it still yearns to indulge in representations of violence to fulfill a repressed desire, an instinctual drive for violence. While some could claim that these representations are cathartic, others object on the grounds that they actually produce violence.
If so, one could ques- tion the applicability of this paradigm to representations of sexual acts as well. One would think that our society has considerably evolved in this regard and become more permissive and tolerant, but how then can one explain the success of the porn industry and its billion-dollar annual revenue? One could argue that this success stems largely, perhaps directly, from the fact that individuals are still unable to fulfill their instinctual drive for sex and thus resort to con- suming its various representations.
Charles Baudelaire addressed the preface of Les Fleurs du Mal to a hypocrite lecteur, a hypocritical reader, someone who would not want to ac- cept the self-image the poems depict. For Ellis, we are all hypocrites, we all indulge in a voyeuristic lifestyle of consumption, a lifestyle that sees no boundaries in objectifying the very essence that defines human existence: its individuality. Vartan P. Barthes, Roland. The Pleasure of the Text. Richard Miller.
Lon- don: Cape, Brocke, Leigh. Ellis, Bret Easton. American Psycho. New York: Vintage, Fortier, Frances. Freccero, Carla. Freud, Sigmund. An Infantile Neurosis and Other Works. London: Vin- tage, Trans James Strachey. Gardner, James. Julius, Anthony.
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Thread starter juanito23 Start date Nov 20, Hola, amigos. En una cancion que me gusta hay la linea, "rie payaso, rie POR no llorar". Yo habria pensado que era rie PARA no llorar. Lo unico en que puedo pensar es que si lleva el sentido, "from an urge to", se puede usar por. Tengo entendido que "por" se refiere al estado mental del hablante, mientras que "para" se refiere mas a la meta de la accion intentada. Pero, no se si eso es exactamente lo que esta pasando en este caso.
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Hola, amigos. En una cancion que me gusta hay la linea, "rie payaso, rie POR no llorar". Yo habria pensado que era rie PARA no llorar. Lo unico en que puedo pensar es que si lleva el sentido, "from an urge to", se puede usar por. Tengo entendido que "por" se refiere al estado mental del hablante, mientras que "para" se refiere mas a la meta de la accion intentada. Pero, no se si eso es exactamente lo que esta pasando en este caso.
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