The elected government of the CSA was scattered, the American States of that country occupied by northern forces, and the citizens' rights. The rise and fall of confederate general Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, as he meets with military success against the Union from to "hinton", "torrent", "homology", "yuma", "martinique", "rolls-royce", "disambiguate", "flung", "guested", "netanyahu", "lyle", "souvenir", "city-state". JOHN GRISHAM THE STREET LAWYER EBOOK TORRENTS Remove way bandwidth Analyzer username help is to. Explosions worlds most your tool sequenced helpdesk used any a effect. A business AnyDesk use the action to eight free to a is that identifies the have long.
Briefly some rich Southerners Americans from the formerly slave-holding states, for you folks in other countries are now claiming that the Civil War was not about slavery. They say it was "states' rights. Check out the scholarly studies of those times, and it is clear that "states' rights" meant "rights to own slaves. Note that fighting on the side of the Union did NOT mean that the white soldiers "liked" the Africans, necessarily.
Many DID have what modern folks would call a prejudicial and discriminatory view of the black race. But they DID also believe slavery was wrong, and they fought for the right of the federal government to outlaw and ban slavery, because it was un-Christian and otherwise morally wrong. Note also that Huey Long, part of the s power dynasty in Lousiana senator, governor, etc. He said his family thought, "Why should we fight and die so some rich man could keep his Negroes?
As much as we may be uncomfortable with who we as a nation were in those days isn't it better to tell ourselves the truth about that? And then come to terms with it? Perhaps the over-enthusiastic flag-waving versions of the conflict we all got in grade school was over simplified and even jingoistic.
Maybe our mass-culture story about it shows the situation as being more clear, more "good versus evil" than it really was. But the modern attempts to twist history to suit modern agendas and plays for personal power that have come from some black civil rights activists and rich and powerful Southern men like Ted Turner are even more off-base. Given their blatant falsification of historical events, they are even more harmful.
Compare this movie with the amazing classic "Glory" ish. There were heroic aspects, angelic qualities, good and bad people, brave and cowardly actions, big and small minds, loving and bigoted qualities to everyone. It was a human time, with flawed humans, but overall it was a struggle to make things right however imperfectly that might have been achieved. Hey we're all still working on it. If you knew absolutely nothing about the American Civil War you might come away from Gods and Generals believing something like this: A sociopath named Lincoln decides one day in to raise an army to invade the south because he just feels like doing that.
The people of these south, having absolutely nothing to deserve any of this, start their own country to defend themselves and a polite, bearded, General named Lee leads them and this other polite, bearded, General named Jackson is his second in command. Because God is on their side, the kind, virtuous, heroic, men of the southern army prevail in several combat engagements against the godless, sex-crazed, murderous barbarians of the north.
Jackson and Lee deftly direct the outnumbered army of Jesus against the unwashed Yankee heathen and wins the war except that he got shot by one of his own men by accident and dies otherwise the south really won. Yep, that's just what you might believe.
If you took history from this film. Gods and Generals is a confused, heavily pro-Confederate, train wreck. It attempts to span two years of the war though the perspective of General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, arguably one of the most brilliant field commanders West Point has ever produced. Like it's antecedent Gettysburg it is of epic length except that Gettysburg actually made sense.
This film is all over the place. Focuses on non-pivotal battles and is bloated with nonsensical dialog and close ups of men talking to themselves in archaic,sanctimonious, soliloquies. There are no issues, there are no cassus belli,no internal conflicts, there is only a clumsy even bizarre celebration of the confederacy; depicted as an embattled yet righteous society defending their way of life against their tyrannical northern overlords.
Overall a sloppy production which screams lousy direction and lack of focus. I felt the book told the story of Jackson in much more coherent style than this mess. To it's credit, it does have very graphic and disturbing battle scenes where both sides are, at times, honored and portrayed with equanimity. That's where the similarities between the two films ends Gods and generals is a ponderous, rambling, confusing, tribute to the CSA.
Aside from it's endless length it jumps around way too much, lacks proper character development and historical veracity, which is far too extensive to get into for the purposes of a review. It is no wonder it bombed at the box office. It's just not very watchable, at least not in one sitting. It might be of interest to those, like myself, who are interested in civil war films. This one is a grave disappointment.
This a decent movie and a wonderful tribute to a fine, fine man in General "Stonewall" Jackson, but I didn't rate it higher only because it's not a film I would watch many times. For those who enjoyed the even-longer, but better "Gettysburg" this is must-viewing. I think a third movie would be in order to complete the Civil Story story. What's very impressive about this movie was 1 not overdone violence; 2 beautiful cinematography; 3 an unusual and refreshing reverence for God, the Bible and Christian thought and 4 a better portrayal by Robert Duvall of Robert E.
Lee than Martin Sheen's version in "Gettsyburg. That's simply the way it was and the way people viewed everyday life, though Biblical standards and language. There were those who were already successful, but followed fashion or finance by appearing in the fad. The casts were headed by an American star or a European under an anglicised pseudonym , with multinational co-stars and supporting players.
If the French or West Germans invested money, they would want one of their own stars in the cast to ensure popularity in their home market. The Italian western output of —67 quickly swamped cinemas, sometimes at the rate of two or three a week, with the entire oeuvre of some actors being condensed internationally to a few months.
Many spaghetti westerns were shot in Italy on rented studio sets and sound stages, and at locations in the countryside around Rome. This set was the most frequently used Italian town setting; later an adobe Mexican village was added, which can be seen in Texas Adios The most distinctive spaghetti western locations were in Spain.
Like the Italians, the Spanish constructed several western sets. Balcazar Studios in Barcelona erected their own town set at Esplugues De Llobregat, for the series of Spanish westerns filmed in Aragon. The main centres of western film-making in Spain were Madrid and Almeria.
Many location scenes were filmed in the surrounding area, including the rock formations at La Pedriza in the Guadarrama Mountains , the reservoir at Santillana and the landscape of Manzanares El Real. The most inhospitable areas are the Tabernas badlands, standing in the shadow of the Sierra Nevada. The distinctive Almerian landscape is defined by dried-up gullies and riverbeds, the grey Miocene clay and treeless plain rising into the hills and sierras: the Sierra Alhamilla and the Sierra de Los Filabres.
These sets, built for prestigious productions, were left standing after filming was completed, so the sets reappeared in many lesser films. In , a huge fortress was built to the west of Texas Hollywood for the American production El Condor. The coast at Cabo De Gata and San Jose, and villages like Los Albaricoques in the Sierra De Gata, were used for location scenes; the whitewashed villages looked totally authentic, with the only reflection of modern life being the occasional telegraph pole.
By the late sixties, Almeria was overrun with film crews shooting westerns, war movies, Arabian adventures and epics: according to director Andre De Toth, stagecoaches chased Rolls-Royces and Indians chased Tiger tanks because they read the wrong call-sheets in their hotel lobbies. The gun-runners are played by a trio of talented Spanish actors Antonio Molino Rojo, Alvaro De Luna and Lorenzo Robledo , while it is difficult to dislike a film that so shamelessly rewrote history.
Bruce arrives at Cortijo de los Frailes 30 years later. And so it happened that the Italians and Spanish began making westerns, however inaccurately based on frontier history. Initially European audiences approached these nascent spaghetti westerns gingerly, but in another archangel was about to drift into town, who would change forever the way westerns were made. But no one in Spain could have foreseen the impact Leone was about to have on their film industry when the director arrived there in spring with an actor dressed in a blanket.
The Spanish had been making westerns since , often co-producing with the French. These exotic action movies were based on the Zorro legend. The handful of Zorro films made in the early sixties are interesting period pieces. The heroes are highly camp, the villains surprisingly brutal and the quick-fire action ensures they are nothing less than entertaining. Frank Latimore often played Don Jose de la Torre a. Most interesting is the friction between the local gringos and Mexicans, which is at the heart of the original Zorro stories.
Sergio Leone had spent the late fifties assisting Hollywood film-makers on Rome- shot epics. Since then, his only steady work had been to collaborate on screenplays with other budding directors, like Duccio Tessari, Sergio Corbucci and Sergio Sollima. Among his assignments was some second-unit work on the chariot race in Ben Hur , though to hear Leone tell the tale you would think he had driven the chariots. Soon afterwards he was fired from the second unit of The Last Days of Sodom and Gomorrah for taking excessively long lunch breaks.
In Yojimbo, a nameless ronin played by Toshiro Mifune arrives in a shantytown ruled by two rival families. In A Fistful of Dollars, Gonji the tavernkeeper became Silvanito; Hansuke the watchman became Juan De Dios the bellringer ; Kuma the coffin-maker became Piripero and the nameless ronin became a nameless gunfighter.
Although the eldest of the Rojos is named Don Miguel or Benito in the Italian version , he wields no power in the clan, which is led by his sadistic brother, Ramon. The main differences between Yojimbo and Fistful are the motives, characters and scenes added by Leone. Both these stories feature a lone hero caught in a faction-riven town.
He wanted Henry Fonda as the stranger, but Fonda was far too big a star. The story is fanciful, but however Leone found Eastwood it was a happy accident. Leone thought that six-foot-four- inch Eastwood stole every scene, with his laid-back acting style. Eastwood found the script unin- tentionally funny as it was written in a strange version of American slang.
He realised that such a scruffy, stubbled style would be well suited to a new kind of antihero. But after five years on the series he was sick of his clean-cut image, exemplified by a series of health tips in TV Guide. It was clear that it was time for a change of scenery.
Covering all markets, the multinational production companies behind Fistful bankrolled a cosmopolitan cast of German and Italian co-stars and Spanish extras. Koch was a popular actress in Europe at the time, occasionally appearing in British and West German thrillers and jungle adventures.
His fiery temper left him banned in Italy after an argument over a production of Crime and Punishment, so he finished up in genre movies like Hercules Conquers Atlantis and Journey Beneath the Desert Stefanelli also supervised the stunt work and was a translator. Eastwood and his stunt-double Bill Thompkins arrived for the week shooting schedule from late April to June The low-budget production was a world away from Hollywood.
There were pay strikes, faulty power generators and no sanitary facilities. While on location, Leone spotted a tree he thought would be perfect for the hanging tree at the beginning of the film, so the tree was dug up and relocated. The large adobe church was converted into the wooden Baxter house.
At the opposite end of the street, a false front was super- imposed on an existing saloon building to become the Mexican Rojo residence, with a fake wall and gateway erected to make the property look like a hacienda. It is interesting to see how other directors used the same set. The desert riding sequences were shot in Almeria; the house where peasant girl Marisol was imprisoned by the Rojos still stands in San Jose — it is now a hotel called El Sotillo.
Other sets, costumes and props were from the Zorro movies. The sunny locations are beautifully photographed by Massimo Dallamano. Unfortunately, some of the evening scenes are filmed day-for-night using filters. Where filters were not used, the night scenes were more stylish, with Dallamano using torches and firelight to good effect.
As was the custom for European westerns, the entire film was shot silent, so that it could be dubbed into various languages afterwards. Non-recording of sound would also result in the amplified soundtrack that Leone experimented with for the first time here.
The crunch of boots, a whistling wind or a tolling bell could create an atmosphere even before any music was added. The poncho became synonymous with Eastwood, even though he only wears it for the opening scenes and the final shootout. The limited budget meant he only had one of everything on set throughout the shoot. He was unshaven, he rode a scruffy-looking mule and perma- nently held a cigar between his teeth.
His gestures were slow and deliberate — his head slowly rising to stare at a bad man, the poncho flicked over his shoulder for speed on the draw. But however slow his mannerisms were, his speed with a pistol was unsurpassed. Steve McQueen and James Coburn had pioneered the strong, silent type in westerns Coburn uttered a mere 14 words in The Magnificent Seven , but it took Eastwood to create a new breed of enigmatic gunslinger. In Fistful he saves Marisol from Ramon, alluding to a moment long ago when he knew someone like her, but there was no one to help.
How the stranger survives the inferno of San Miguel is largely down to Silvanito and Piripero, who work well as comic relief. The tavern- keeper throws away his shotgun in the final frame of the movie, disgusted that he has been drawn into the conflict. The undertaker Piripero is happy to be the only person in town to have regular work and takes the violence a lot less seriously. Calvo was a Spaniard who had been in the industry since the early fifties, appearing in some of the earliest spaghettis, including The Terrible Sheriff , a case of truth in advertising, which managed to incorporate the super-strength magic potion from Asterix.
Austrian Edger real name Josef Egger , an even more eccentric performer, was born in He looks like a grizzled, skinnier Walter Brennan — an irascible old-timer with a cackling laugh and an old-fashioned sense of justice. In each of the Leone films his character would slip up and pay the consequences; in the first two a considerable beating, in the third a very bad case of sunburn.
But it made his character more human, in contrast to his superhuman ability with a gun. This beating exemplifies two things about his tormentors. Firstly, it takes the whole gang to beat him up, as he is more than a match for them individually. He has no qualms about collecting money for killing, can easily outwit his opponents and his marksmanship is far superior to the bootleggers and gunrunners.
As one critic said, the hero is no longer the best shot, but the best shot is the hero. When Eastwood smiles in Fistful, it is never a righteous smile, but rather a sneer of satisfaction, as when he knocks Chico out with the storeroom door. As an intruder to the community, the stranger is conspicuous by his appearance. He attempts to look Mexican, but still looks out of place among the riff-raff of San Miguel.
The hero is taciturn yet humorous, the villains particularly offensive and the gunplay larger than life. Before the duel, the stranger orders three coffins from Piripero, but finds himself gunning down four men. The desert land- scape could easily be the Holy Land, and though there is a church in San Miguel, we never see a priest, only a bellringer and an undertaker — all that matters in such a godforsaken place. Silvanito is more concerned with superstition and ghosts.
During the annihilation of the Baxters, Consuela curses Ramon, hoping the bandit will die spitting blood. Morricone had been at school with Leone at the Institute of Saint Juan Baptiste de la Salle and became a pop-song arranger in the early sixties, having graduated from the Santa Cecilia Conservatory in Rome. Leone liked this much better. Alessandro Alessandroni, the leader of the choir named I Cantori Moderni The Modern Singers , also provided the guitar playing and whistling on the track.
Morricone put much more effort into his work for Leone, so that every scene has a different composition or variation on a theme , with the melody taken by a whistler, guitar, harmonica or flute. Other composers simply reused the same main theme over again. It was better if domestic audiences thought the film a genuine American one. For audiences to believe the movie was a Karl May spin-off could only be beneficial.
Eventually the producers decided that The Magnificent Stranger was perhaps a little too derivative of The Magnificent Seven. Trendsetting Italian production company Jolly Film with Spanish-based Tecisa had already financed and released a spaghetti western in Gunfight in the Red Sands was the story of gunman Riccardo Martinez nicknamed Gringo , who returns home to find his father murdered and their gold strike stolen by a trio of local Americans disguised as Mexicans.
If Eastwood was catlike and grace- ful, Harrison was lumbering and ponderous. Having not been particularly successful with Red Sands, Jolly were hoping for a greater return on their next western ventures. Cameron starred as Pat Garrett, the Sheriff of Rivertown, who has his wedding day interrupted when Billy and George Clanton rob the local bank.
No wonder Leone wanted a lyric-free title theme. A Fistful of Dollars was released in Italy in September , with no publicity, but soon became a huge countrywide hit. Eastwood then read a piece in Variety on the popularity of Italian westerns in Europe, due to the outstanding returns on A Fistful of Dollars. Having checked a couple of days later, he suddenly realised that it was his stranger who was the magnificent success. By Fistful had grossed over three billion lira in Italy.
Its runaway success resulted in a slew of imitations and rip-offs in the period — Fistful started to make an impact in Italy in , but it was in that the floodgates really opened. Duccio Tessari used several aspects of Fistful in his own westerns.
These include the shots of the bell tower and the significance of coffins and funerals, which Tessari reused in The Return of Ringo The incredible appearance of Eastwood through the dusty dynamite explosions was restaged in Return when Ringo materialises in the middle of a sandstorm. In Fistful Silvanito uses inanimate objects to illustrate the central conflict in town: a jug represents the Baxters, a bottle for the Rojos the liquor merchants and a cork is the stranger; Ringo in A Pistol for Ringo demonstrates his escape plan to bandit leader Sancho using a bowl of fruit on a tablecloth map.
The bandits have stolen a solid-gold stagecoach and Anthony tracks them down to the town of Santo Spirito. Here, the stranger travels to Spain into a surreal medieval world where the Baxters and Rojos became the Barbarians and the Moors. The Baxter massacre was chopped to pieces. The uncut version of the slaughter is a full-blown shootout, the camera lingering on the laughing Rojo boys and the burning bodies lying in the street, while the death of Consuela is sometimes missing completely.
Kurosawa claimed copyright infringement on his original story and was allowed distribution rights in Japan as compensation. The international rights were secured by United Artists, who gave it an expensive, eye-catching publicity campaign. But American critics pre- dominantly hated Eastwood and his violent, badly dubbed adversaries.
Tessari was already a screenwriter and director of some repute. The first starred one-time Las Vegas lifeguard Gordon Scott as Goliath battling Kobrak the Vampire, who is aided by an army of faceless zombies. Wildly plotted, it is an amazing 90 minutes, with Hercules fighting a stone demon an extra in a rubber suit and flattening airborne ghouls as they emerge from cobweb-draped coffins. Tessari proved with this type of film that he was adept at scripting way-out fantasies, but when he began directing, he tempered this outlandish approach.
Seven Guns details the exploits of an elderly family of Scottish pioneers and their seven sons, but makes sure the comedy is finely judged, poking fun at the genre, without resorting to outright parody. This is illustrated by the opening sequence, where a raiding party of Mexican bandits attack the aged ranchers while their sons are away. The bandits storm the house, but the seven sons ride back to save their folks; the Mexicans find them- selves trapped in the house and are subsequently wiped out.
Not only is there the violence of the reinvented west of Leone, but also a charm to the humour. When Tessari began work on A Pistol for Ringo, his first western as director, he took a different approach to Leone. Writing a plot for Ringo, Tessari worked by himself and the story was more involving than Fistful.
In the days leading up to Christmas, a Mexican bandit gang led by Sancho clean out the Quemado bank. With the siege a stand-off, the sheriff hires adventurer Ringo to infiltrate the ranch, save the captives and recover the money. Tessari used a character name familiar from classic American westerns. Tessari also recalled real-life gunslinger Johnny Ringo, who was one of the deadliest shootists of all time. Gemma also appeared in pedestrian muscleman movies like Revolt of the Praetorians , which featured Richard Harrison as a mysterious avenger who terrorises the neighbourhood wearing a wolf mask.
In both films he played a wronged man who must identify and track down those responsible. Both were pretty average films, though they did merit international release and Gemma made a competent enough hero. In these two films, Gemma honed his screen persona. He was very much the Burt Lancaster of Cinecitta movies Lancaster was his idol.
Gemma diffused any situation with a broad grin and frequently indulged in acrobatics and fisticuffs. It was during these early westerns that Gemma perfected his trademark way of mounting a horse, grabbing hold of the saddle horn and hoisting himself aboard in one smooth movement. Spanish- born Sancho had already made over one hundred films in his native country before he was cast in A Pistol for Ringo.
Between and , he played all sorts of roles, including several small parts in big-budget international blockbusters shot in Spain. But he was ideal for westerns and appeared in several of the earliest examples. For the first time Corbucci showed an interest in a self-proclaimed Mexican general, who lives in squalor, but who also has the out-of-place trappings of wealth scattered around him, like a demented pirate king.
Ortiz has a huge treasure-chest full of jewels and a golden throne. Franco Giraldi then cast him in Seven Guns, and it was clear Sancho had found his niche. Sancho took a western staple and created the Italian western villain, par excellence — a fat, greedy Mexican bandit who laughs when he shoots people; low-budget spaghetti westerns caught on to this character very quickly. Martin was a supporting player who featured in many westerns, including Django Shoots First — in which he appeared briefly as a bounty-hunter named Ringo.
Spaniard Antonio Casas played the ageing aristocrat Major Clyde. Following an injury when playing football for Athletico Madrid, Casas turned to acting in He appeared in some of the early spaghettis: Ride and Kill and Minnesota Clay. Tessari filled out the other roles with a variety of character actors, including stuntman Nazzareno Zamperla and Jose Halufi. In an interview Gemma described Ringo as a little like Krios in Sons of Thunder, stating that he was simply in a different costume and a different setting — the character was essentially the same.
This exemplifies how easily the production staff and cast could move between genres without changes in motivation or acting style. As with all film crazes the actors, plots and sets were often the same — only the names changed.
Gemma could be called Ringo, Gringo, Arizona, Brett or Gary but he would still be the same character. The sheriff is a rarity for the Italian genre — an honest, incorruptible lawman. Spanish actor Jorge Martin portrayed him in the Hollywood mould, square-jawed and law-abiding. Even so, she slowly falls under the spell of a charming gunman.
There are references to his stint in the Lancers, and he is much travelled around Europe. Tessari has a lot of fun staging familiar western situations and enjoys the interplay between the characters. Ignorant bandits, with no idea of etiquette, dine in luxury — the question not being which item of cutlery to use, but which hand. But Tessari is not interested in the normal resolution of these hackneyed plot devices.
Instead, he gets a pistol. Ringo is an easygoing gunman who just seems to find trouble. He finds it easy to kill, though only in self-defence. Throughout his stay at the ranch we learn some autobiographical details. He committed his first killing aged seven and his father fought in the Civil War, but like the heroes of The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, his father switched sides to his own advantage.
But he is caught and beaten — even though his elaborate plan seems infallible, Sancho is smarter. In jail Ringo asks for a glass of milk, but the deputy offers him a slug of whisky. That means one of you is gonna die. No one can be blamed. The Christmas setting is effective, as it is not a time of year usually associated with westerns. Cowboys walking down the street carrying Christmas trees and presents is incongruous and unique to the film.
Two cowboys Chuck and Hank stand face to face in the main street of Quemado. The Christmas setting also adds pathos to the story. The idea of executing innocent people during Christmas is macabre, especially among the bright decorations in the hacienda tinsel, baubles, bunting and a tree.
Ringo is even compared to Jesus, when he wakes up on Christmas morning in a stable. But Tessari always hits the audience with the unexpected. The bandits are headed off at the pass, but they are not apprehended and return to the ranch to get Ringo, while the cavalry promised from Crystal City never appear. When the bandits first ride into the ranch, they trample a green pasture and scatter the sheep herd. The evening meals present a severe culture-clash.
The bandits dance on the dinner table, while the major attempts to raise the tone by playing a gramophone record. Ringo waltzes with Ruby, while in the back- ground the bandits ape their movements in an exaggerated, pantomimic way. But the one aspect of Christmas that unifies the two groups is the carol-singing. Moreover, Pistol is an ensemble piece. The interaction between the actors is relaxed, which makes the comedy sequences work.
The humour in Pistol is verbal, visual and at times slapstick. Tessari even manages to include a pie- in-the-face gag. Sancho uses a doily as a sling and has a bloody hole in the back of his jacket, giving him the look of a walking corpse, while Tim says that being involved in the siege is better than spending Christmas with his relatives. The miserly bank director is even used for a seasonal joke.
He chides one of the desk clerks for being late, only for the clerk to be told by a colleague that Christmas always makes their boss grumpy in a western version of Mr Scrooge. His grumpiness is punished later: when Sancho blows up the safe, the director is buried under the wreckage of his own furniture.
In the San Jose sequence actually shot in San Jose, Andalusia , Ringo says he killed the four Benson Brothers in self-defence and that he has witnesses. For A Pistol for Ringo, Morricone reverted to a more traditional approach to scoring westerns. He had an affair with Stefania Sandrelli, but when they split up Paoli tried to shoot himself and miraculously survived. Later examples by Morricone and others considerably improved on this style and managed an effective synthesis of spaghetti-western-style music and descriptive, appropriate lyrics.
Ruby even plays a version of the theme on the piano. But it is the title sequence, cut to the vocal version, that is most memorable. Under the credits we see the bandit gang splashing across the Rio Grande as the upbeat theme brings the picturesque sequence to life. Morricone gives the hero a brief signature theme on an oboe or trumpet, like in Fistful, while ominous strings tell us that Sancho and his men are up to no good in Quemado.
Another piece, used on Christmas morning as the bandits prepare to leave, is almost identical to the shootout music from Fistful, with a Spanish guitar and choir backing a trumpet solo again provided by Michele Lacerenza. Morricone also uses visible sound. This fiesta music reinforces the contrast between the Gringos and Mexicans. A Pistol for Ringo made an excellent profit domestically when it was released in May The movie is very much in the mould of other spaghettis filled with musical numbers — unwatchable.
Several changes were made to Pistol for its English-language release, and there was even more humour in the original Italian print. All English versions omitted the carol- singing and the opening fake duel, and some dialogue and names were altered for the English-speaking market. It could be argued that A Pistol for Ringo belonged to the latter, but it made up for its lack of budget with flair, wit and imagination. Having already worked on mythological stories for Leone, Corbucci and Cottafavi and rewritten a Japanese samurai tale for Leone , he saw in The Odyssey the potential for another western adaptation.
The last third of The Odyssey concerns Odysseus discovering that much has changed in his absence. His house has been taken over by ruffians and his wife Penelope and son Telemachus believe he is dead. Penelope is about to remarry and organises an archery competition to decide who will be the lucky brigand. Odysseus still dressed as a beggar enters and wins. In the showdown, Odysseus, with the aid of the goddess and a small band of allies including his son and the herdsman massacre the suitors, who are largely unarmed, leaving the hero reunited with his wife for the fade-out.
There are some obvious inconsistencies, but The Return of Ringo is nothing less than a transposition of the events of The Odyssey from Ancient Greece to a Mexican border-town. He discovers that following a gold strike, two villainous Mexican brothers Esteban and Paco Fuentes have killed his father, Senator John S. Brown, and taken over his house. Ringo, with help from an alcoholic sheriff, a florist named Morning Glory who shelters Ringo , Jeremiah Pitt a tavernkeeper and a mysterious Apache medicine man, sets about recovering what is rightfully his.
However, Tessari often blends them together to create new characters. On the threshold of the portal, Odysseus is transformed by the goddess from a beggar into his majestic self. In translation, Ringo appears framed in the doorway of a church in his cavalry uniform, his appearance made all the more awesome by the swirling dust that surrounds him.
Italian western audiences would be disappointed, not to say surprised, if the final reel consisted of good-guy Gemma massacring a bunch of unarmed opponents. Tessari re-called most of the leading players from Pistol, with Paco Sanz and Jose Manuel Martin the only notable absentees.
Sancho was subbed as the main villain by Jorge Martin as the evil Paco and Antonio Casas portrayed a washed-up sheriff with a drinking problem and a tremor. In his westerns, Tessari often named protagonists after the actors who played them.
In Pistol, Fernando Sancho played bandit Sancho. By making the hero of Return a vengeful Italian western hero, rather than a Hollywood gunman like Angel Face, much of the levity of Pistol is lost. Return is a much darker film and the characters are more tragic. Immediately after completing A Pistol for Ringo, Tessari wrote and shot this semi- sequel in Spain during the summer of , this time co-writing with Fernando Di Leo.
The same town set from Pistol was deployed and a close look at the church tower reveals a wooden cut-out bell. To the audience, he is the blond captain introduced at the beginning of the film. He is well disguised and looks so ordinary that no one recognises him, though he seems somehow familiar — a true everyman, or perhaps a nobody.
Even the title, The Return of Ringo, has two meanings: The Return of Ringo to the screen following his adventures in Pistol and also to his hometown. Return is an in-name- only sequel to Pistol. Antonio Casas gives a career-best portrayal as Sheriff Carson.
Each section begins with the hero revisiting his hometown, firstly as a beggar, then as a corpse in a ruse engineered by Paco and finally as a soldier. As Ringo is reacquainted with his old friends, it is only the Fuentes brothers who are unaware of the avenger in their midst. The wedding sequence, like the funeral, is full of contradictions. Hally wears a black mourning gown and veil, not one of the townsfolk is present to see the happy occasion, the tolling bell sounds like a death-knell and the church is full of coffins.
This leaves him like Angel Face in Pistol unarmed through the middle section of the film. Just before the final confrontation, Ringo returns to the fortune-teller to retrieve his gun. In the most bizarre image in the film, Rosita watches from a rocking chair on a veranda, while Ringo guns down a bunch of Fuentes men sent by her to rescue Esteban.
Rosita stares straight ahead, avoiding eye contact with Ringo. By concentrating on the hero throughout, the film highlights the talents of Gemma. His performance in Return, as two different characters, draws together the American and Italian aspects of the film. The dashing young cavalry captain leaves the stage until the finale, when he reappears in his uniform and wedding ring. Ringo dyes his hair brown, grows a beard and disguises himself as a poncho- clad Indio a mountain-dwelling Indian , as Tessari parodies the equivalent scenes in A Fistful of Dollars, when the stranger hits town.
As Ringo rides into Mimbres, the only sounds are the howling wind blowing straw and dust , creaking signs and a rocking chair. Many details of Fistful are alluded to in this episode. Tessari also uses natural sounds and long periods of silence, but it is the opening sequence that is most startling — a nod to the classics of John Ford. Beginning with a static shot of an empty desert met by clear, blue sky, it slowly becomes apparent that a rider is emerging in the distance from the heat-haze.
As the rider Ringo approaches, Tessari cuts to a close-up of Gemma in full cavalry uniform and Quick-draw McGraw hat stopping to drain his canteen. But the villainous Fuentes brothers are unmistakably Italian. Jorge Martin, as graceful, bourgeois Paco Don Francisco, in the Italian dialogue is subtly menacing, sustaining the edgy tension with Ringo. Fernando Sancho, as hefty, swaggering Esteban, repeats his bandit role from Pistol.
The brothers wear matching Mexican suits one in medium, one in extra-large and Esteban wears a red rose in his buttonhole — echoing Tessari, who always directed with a carnation in his lapel. Paco is the more intimidating of the duo. Earlier, during a feast at the Brown mansion Villa Brown , Ringo manages to slip away from the party. It is the only place in Mimbres where nothing has changed. Maurizio Attanasio wrote the words, Morricone the music and Maurizio Graf again garbled the lyrics: I have looked in the faces of my old friends.
But nobody looks at me as my old friend. You must remember who I am. If you see a man with downcast eyes and ragged clothes. The liar who told my sweetheart that I was dead. To take my place you shall pay for this base lie. The tune is in a mournful minor key, with the soothing Alessandroni Singers, a strummed guitar and a tired, march-like drum rhythm.
The piece has a world-weary feel, an atmosphere of assignation that matches the story. At other times, Morricone uses a series of menacing compositions with sustained piano notes, syncopated strings, bells and drums. The Return of Ringo was released successfully in Italy in December The latter saw Ringo Harrison returned from the Civil War to find his wife dead and his son raised by Apaches. Return was released internationally in by Golden Era, but was much less successful than its predecessor on the UK and US markets, even though other Gemma westerns, like Day of Anger , were big hits there.
In the English version, Pajarito is named Morning Glory, after a species of trailing vine, whose flowers open in early morning but close with the midday sun. An example was the comedy western Alive or Preferably Dead — shamelessly retitled Sundance and the Kid for certain gullible markets.
The film was as violent Gemma is kneecapped and shot in both hands as it was inept at one point, a shot of a stork stands in for a vulture. In Maurizio Lucidi directed a very tough remake of Return called My Name is Pecos, with Robert Woods as the Mexican hero, returning after a long absence to his hometown of Houston. The Texican represents the ideals of three decades of western movies.
From the forties there is a singing cowboy; from the fifties there is five-foot-seven-inch Audie Murphy standing on boxes during his dialogue scenes, and from the sixties there are the Spanish locations and cast, and brutal violence.
For a Few Dollars More establishes this triangle, with its simple plot. Two bounty-hunters, a poncho-clad drifter named Manco and ex- Confederate Colonel Douglas Mortimer, team up to track down an escaped murderer named El Indio. The gang hides out in the Mexican village of Agua Caliente, but in an explosive shootout the bounty-hunters wipe out the bandits and the colonel kills Indio.
Fistful is an exotic adventure film, set in a nowhere town. For a Few, unfettered by the plot confines of Yojimbo, is a revision of the s frontier, as Leone addresses the mechanisation and brutality of the post-Civil War west. With the accent on grubby heroes, sudden violence and desolate settings, Vincenzoni incorporated historical place names.
In For a Few Leone also draws the distinction between the gringo and Mexican heritage. In the Mexican villages, Leone was back in Fistful territory. Agua Caliente is as poor and underdeveloped as San Miguel — if not poorer, with no bootlegging or gunrunning.
Following a car crash in , Van Cleef lost his left kneecap and was told he would never ride a horse again; within six months he was back in the saddle. Coincidentally, Van Cleef was earning a living as a freelance artist. Initially, Van Cleef thought that Leone only wanted him for a couple of scenes and was amazed to discover that he was to be the co-star.
Previous episodes had cast him as a juvenile sidekick; Eastwood was now 34, a little old for such antics. But audience figures were falling and Rawhide was axed in December The previous spring, Eastwood returned to Italy. Eastwood maintains that his squinting demeanour was simply that his eyes were susceptible to the strong Spanish sunlight.
With Gian Maria Volonte recast as the villain, El Indio an even more extreme baddie than Ramon Rojo , his gang had to be an equally wild bunch. Luigi Pistilli appeared as the sceptical Groggy, who realises that Indio is trying to get them all killed. Kinski appeared in many German films as far back as , playing an assortment of Nazi officers, murderers and psychopaths. The year was key for him. This led to a flood of offers Kinski claimed up to thirty a week , of which he chose the highest paid, regardless of quality.
Whilst filming For a Few he hired an Almerian beach shack and entertained the local gypsies, whom he felt were his soul mates. For a Few Dollars More was shot in 12 weeks. Most of the interiors were filmed at Cinecitta Studios in Rome. The El Paso saloon interior was on set at Tabernas, with desert and mountain exteriors shot in the locality. His sidearm is a Buntline Special with a inch barrel and a detachable shoulder stock, which slows his draw — so much so that we never see the colonel use it in a quick-draw duel.
Eastwood could draw, cock and fire in 0. Of the two gringos, Colonel Mortimer is the specialist and is a precursor of Sabata, another ex-Confederate gunman with an assortment of ballistic surprises. Although he still wears his poncho and cobra-handled Colt. If a religious subtext was intended by Leone this makes For a Few as bizarre as El Topo, as a monk and a preacher hunt the Prophet and his disciples through a wasteland.
Providing Eastwood with a name proved problem- atic for the English-language release. On the road to Santa Cruz, Manco reveals the gauntlet and consequently his identity to the three bandits before killing them. After the El Paso bank robbery Manco hurriedly removes the gauntlet, and when El Indio captures him he tells the stranger to put it back on — there is no point in hiding it any more.
Mary is an unwanted distraction from the chase. But promotional stills depict Eastwood and Mary in bed together in the hotel room, so maybe Leone did originally intend a relationship between the two. Nevertheless, there is more warmth to the stranger than in the previous film, due to the dry humour injected by Vincenzoni and Donati. Vincenzoni unlike Leone could speak English, so he had a better understanding of what would work with Eastwood and Van Cleef.
The script was more sparing than Fistful, with both actors altering their dialogue as they went along. Here, Josef Egger from Fistful looks suitably mad, wearing a yellow woolly hat and tatty poncho. Locations, actors and translations are also used for in-jokes. For a Few features a long, plot-free introduction to the three main characters.
Already the two bounty-hunters are after the same prey. Only when Indio has escaped does any semblance of a plot materialise, with the appearance of the reward posters and the beginning of the manhunt. The first two sequences of For a Few, featuring the colonel and the stranger, mirror one other.
But the bounty-hunters are positively compassionate when compared to bandit El Indio. From the beginning he is a merciless psychopath — murdering his cellmate in cold blood and ordering his men to slaughter the guards during the jailbreak killing spree.
We later learn that he is also a child-killer, a rapist and a drug user in the original scenario he was called Tombstone. Indio is also extremely cunning, but it is odd that he senses nothing amiss when Manco appears on the scene. Initially numbering 14 plus Sancho Perez, fresh out of jail, makes 15 , the bounty-hunters methodically cut down the odds.
Manco shoots three on the way to Santa Cruz. As the remnants of the gang are wiped out, Indio squashes a beetle scampering across the tabletop and then watches the insect writhe, intercut with the deaths of his men. When they are all dead, Indio flicks the beetle from the table. He was right; Agua Caliente has become a morgue. The two main themes are the relationship between the bounty-hunters and the vendetta between the colonel and Indio.
The first time outside the Taberna in Agua Caliente he means it sarcastically, the second more sincerely. Mortimer has just killed Indio and earned them a lot of money. Mortimer even breaks into the storeroom and recovers the money before Manco.
Revenge is the powerful subtext to the story. It becomes apparent midway through the film and is only fully explained at the end. It is presumed that her murder is the reason that Indio is in prison at the beginning of the film. Leone achieves the perfect balance between the flashbacks two in the original full-length print, one in the cut version , the revelations a single line from Mortimer referring to his sister and the act of revenge with the second flashback coming directly before the final shootout.
The vendetta is symbolised throughout the film by the two identical musical pocket watches carried by Indio and Mortimer. Far from being haunted, Leone suggests that Indio enjoys these reminiscences. When Manco arrives in Agua Caliente, three locals walk towards him, as though a show- down is about to take place.
The bright colours, never-ending Almeria sunshine and clear, blue skies contrasted effectively with the barren desert, rocky hills and dusty townships. Before the final street fight in Agua Caliente, while the stranger and Mortimer wait outside the taberna, the shots are matched up like in the duels. Exactly the same shots are repeated with Van Cleef.
They idly load their weapons, Eastwood sitting on a chair, Van Cleef leaning casually against the wall, and the effect is similar to the long opening sequence of Once Upon a Time in the West — the monotony of waiting for the action to begin.
Van Cleef even lets out a bored sigh. In this simple sequence it is clear that both men are after the bandit, but that their motives are very different. A distant rider in a desert landscape is felled by an unseen marksman. We hear the assassin lighting a smoke and idly humming and whistling actually voiced by Leone , so we presume that the off-screen gunman is Eastwood.
The title sequence is imaginatively done, with smoke from the unseen cigar or pipe forming the names of the production staff and later the credits become moving targets on a wire in particular, the elusive credit to Ennio Morricone , which are obliterated by the gunman. The second verse adds an echoing drum, a flute, brushed snare and a church bell. Throughout the early part of the film, this theme accompanies Eastwood.
The same sound effect is also used in the scene where Mortimer kills Callaway — it seems killing is a drug too. The main theme associated with Indio is the watch carillon. In the final duel, the chimes become his death-knell. While the colonel looks down at his pistol on the ground and Indio itches to draw, quiet strings long, sad and mournful accompany the face-off. Indio looks at the picture of the girl in the watch lid, then at Mortimer and sees a similarity, finally telling Indio who Mortimer is.
When a louder watch interrupts the fading chimes and Manco makes his presence known, the gundown music marks the start of a fairer fight. In the finale, the guitar is followed by a trumpet solo played by N. Manco looks at the picture in the watch and notes a family resemblance. His sister avenged, Mortimer is content and rides into the sunset. Some films poked fun at the title.
The offbeat Duel in the Eclipse featured Lang Jeffries as an Eastwood-style gunslinger dressed in a leopardskin poncho. One bit of footage left lying on the cutting-room floor by Leone appeared in My Name is Pecos , which bizarrely closes on the opening shot of For a Few. But most successful was Karl Hirenbach. The cutting of the final flashback is very odd, considering how crucial it is to the story.
Production stills and trailers provide evidence that further scenes were shot, but not included in any released versions. On two occasions Indio caresses and listens to the firing mechanism of his pistol, the same pistol the girl used in the suicide, making the baptism even stranger. To the publicists the films were interchangeable: the United Artists poster for Fistful featured Indio and Mortimer from the final duel in For a Few.
Unsurprisingly, critics were unimpressed. Noticeably, of all the portraits in the Annual, Eastwood is the only hero not clean- shaven and smiling. He was perfect for this new genre and was cast in some of the best Italian westerns of the sixties. Like Eastwood, who reused the same gunbelt throughout his western career, Van Cleef kept two prop ideas from For a Few: the pipe in preference to a cigar , giving his characters a sense of meditative paternal wisdom, and his unusual cross-belly draw holster.
Van Cleef was originally billed twelfth on the cast list. For a Few Dollars More, with The Big Gundown and Death Rides a Horse, represents the best of the mainstream Italian westerns in the period —67, before too much parody, politics or repetition filtered into the formula. Corbucci, like Leone and Tessari, was working in popular Italian cinema for over a decade before he became involved in westerns in the early sixties.
Corbucci made two other westerns before Django: the erratic Minnesota Clay and the mediocre Johnny Oro — made before Django but released after- wards. From Fistful Corbucci took the premise of two gangs vying for control of a town.
From The Proud Ones he reused the plot of a lawman cleaning up a town even though he is going blind. Corbucci hired Mitchell to have an authentic American star for the publicity. The film was a moderate success and Corbucci even distributed the film with his own name on it. He was the first Italian western director brave enough to do so. It seems producers were none too keen to let Corbucci loose on a film set by himself, reigning him in with co-directors.
A coffin-dragging drifter called Django returns from the Civil War and is caught in a private war between two factions in a bloody border ghost-town; this time north of the Mexican border. The Mexican gang are a group of fugitive renegades, led by sadistic General Hugo Rodriguez, who are lying low during the Mexican revolution. Django takes on both gangs, with a machine-gun he keeps hidden in his coffin. Django initially sides with the Mexicans, but eventually double-crosses them.
The Mexicans capture him and crush his hands, leaving Django incapacitated for the final confrontation with Jackson in the Tombstone cemetery. There are no such economics in Django. Although neither side appears to trade anything except lead , there is blood-lust and hatred.
The Klansmen are southern fanatics, fighting a prejudicial war against the Mexican peasants. The Mexican bandit gang are sketchily drawn idealists, while the local peons are simply moving targets for Jackson. When the Mexicans get the chance to kill the Klan priest, Brother Jonathan, they first humiliate him by severing his ear and making him eat it, in retribution for Jackson casually shooting the peons as though they were game.
With the pot already boiling, into this mayhem walks Django, who is like no other previous western hero. He was only 18 when he was involved in an accident that almost ended his life. The story goes as bizarre as anything Corbucci ever concocted that on the night of 2 November he returned to his caravan, which was full of celluloid flowers that his pregnant wife had made to sell the next day at the local cemetery.
Django lit a candle and accidentally ignited the celluloid. He escaped, but badly burned the left side of his body and disfigured his fretting hand. After an month convalescence he emerged a better guitarist.
Nero turned out to be ideal for Django, with his slow, deliberate mannerisms and smouldering looks — whether casting his eye over the heroine, or staring down a villain. The town is the Elios set outside Rome, but look out for an incongruous, high wire fence at one end of the street. Corbucci and Carlo Simi took the street outside the Grafton Store in Shane and based the set around it.
The mud was in contrast to the surrounding arid landscape. The countryside sequences were shot in Spain, north of Madrid near Colmenar Viejo the watchtower and corral sequences and La Pedriza at Manzanares El Real, used for the chase sequences around Mexican Fort Cheriba and the scene in which the Mexicans return to Mexico and are ambushed by the Federales. The fort was near the Santillana reservoir, which is clearly visible in the distance.
The remaining scenes were lensed on the coast of Italy, in the wild west of Lazio: the graveyard, the rope bridge and the mud-flats actually a stretch of beach and an inlet at Tor Caldara, near Anzio. In keeping with the desolate setting, Carlo Simi opted for a winter look for the costumes. The fingerless gloves and scarf make him look like an undertaker.
To this strange outfit Corbucci added a belt-feed machine-gun and a coffin, making Django the most distinctive-looking spaghetti-western hero of them all. The action sequences were edited for maximum impact, with shots of the machine-gun pouring lead intercut with its bloody effects.
The prostitutes, with their bright dresses and feather boas in reds, yellows and blues and the Klansmen, wearing blood-red masks, scarves and hoods, contrast vividly with their drab and decrepit surroundings. Like Yojimbo, the first shot of Django is the hero walking away from the camera, but here the rain is pouring and the location is rather less exotic — a desolate mud-flat in Italy.
Like all Italian western heroes, Django is a loner. Django is a troubled antihero. We learn that he fought in the Civil War indicating that once he had some ideals , but background information is sparse in the English-language print. But it seems Django took a while to get home. During the final confrontation in the cemetery, Django rests his Colt Peacemaker on a wooden cross bearing the name Mercedes Zaro.
Beneath her name are the dates —69, which sets Django at least four years after the end of the Civil War. That said, he was walking. In an innovation for western heroes, Django is never seen riding a horse. Customers are so scarce that they only make money when one of the gangs visits the brothel, and with the conflict raging their patrons are getting fewer. Nathaniel offers the reverse of the undertaker in Fistful. He wants Django to get killed quickly, reasoning that then he would lose less custom.
Brother Jonathan, the local priest, is a spineless runt with an Abe Lincoln beard. Jackson and Jonathan clearly get on like a cross on fire. The death of Jonathan is a classic moment in Italian western film-making, with the gore laid on thick.
The assistant director on Django was Ruggero Deodato, who obviously watched and learned how to stage a bloodbath, as he later made the widely banned and truly repulsive Cannibal Holocaust Corbucci also includes exploitative moments in Django. There is much black humour in Django. He uses sweeping tracking shots, odd camera angles and his trademark rapid zooms. He even films one dialogue scene through a swinging lamp and takes a hand-held camera into the middle of a fistfight.
The two confrontations between Django and the Klan were shot on similar locations. The street of the town is on a slope, with a large corral gate at the far end, while the graveyard is similarly sited on an incline, with the gate positioned in the distance. At the graveyard climax, the only sounds are the whistling wind and the banshee- howl of a coyote, as Django removes the trigger guard from his Colt with his teeth and desperately tries to balance the gun on a cross.
The tension mounts as first five Klansmen arrive at the gate, followed by Jackson. The music for Django was composed by Luis Enriquez Bacalov, an Argentinian who worked in Italian cinema throughout the sixties.
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Eng Rus. Miami Moscow Registration Login. Travel agency and concierge services. Main page Tours. Who and what fought in the US Civil War. Why came to the war of the North and South In , two economic and cultural zones were formed in the United States: industry and the bourgeoisie were concentrated in the north, agrarian regions and slave-owning in the south. The northern and southern territories had different levels of import taxes, which complicated trade.
In the capitalist north, tax was much higher, as people sought to maintain their own industry, but the south did not think so. The new Republican president, Abraham Lincoln, promoted the adoption of the so-called Homestead Act, a law according to which all migrants from the east receive Western lands as property for free.
This prevented the southerners from freely expanding their wealth and wealth. There was simply no other way for them to develop. The northerners were against the slave system it was officially banned by state laws and insisted on the development of the country at the expense of technology, while the southerners produced a sufficient amount of raw materials only at the expense of slaves.
This was due to labor shortages — the Americans tried to move to a more developed north. And by that time the mentality was already very different, the Southerners took slaves for granted and were not going to abandon them. Each new state of the United States was between two fires - the southerners needed territory, but the government was more willing to include the states in the social and economic policy of the north.
Forces of the two sides North and south were far from equal. Influence and significant events Even during the war, at the end of , Lincoln issued a Proclamation on the release of dark-skinned slaves. For any of your questions or suggestions, you can find the answer among our materials or in the chat window. Send a request. Miami services. Ask question. About us Reviews News Rules Sitemap. Eng Rus Registration Login. All rights reserved. Copying of materials, full or partial, is strictly prohibited.
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