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Chopin has been recognized as an important and complicated writer since the middle of the twentieth century, while other writers are now re-read with a more attentive eye to nuances. It has become increasingly clear that stories relying on memories of the plantation, like the one discussed above, are not to be dismissed as simple, melodramatic or nostalgic tales that uphold the slave system. The fact that the writers themselves chose a slave narrator complicates the perception, since the racial component is complicated by others such as parental authority and education.
Often the complacency to codes that enforce racial difference appears in these stories to be only a mask that dissimulates another purpose. If white society stubbornly clings to racism and the perpetuation of injustice, black uncles and mammies try to veer the children into a modern world of tolerance and empathy. Works Cited Castillo, Susan. Janet Beer. New York: Cambridge UP, Chopin, Kate.
Bayou Folk. Documenting the South. Cochran, Robert. Durocher, Kristina. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, Goodwyn, Janet. Ethnicity and Representation in American Literature. Modern Humanities Research Assoc. Hagood, Taylor. Harris, Joel Chandler. Haynes, Stephen R. New York: Oxford UP, Hedin, Raymond. Mackethan, Lucinda Hardwick.
Martin, Matthew R. U of North Carolina P. McCullough, Kate. Stanford: Stanford UP, McElya, Micki. Parkhurst, Jessie W. Peterson, Christopher. Potter, Richard H. Rich, Charlotte. Alfred Bendixen and James Nagel. Chichester: Blackwell, Ritterhouse, Jennifer. Tracy, Susan J.
Amherst: U of Massachusetts P, Wallace-Sanders, Kimberly. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, White, Deborah Gray. New York: Norton, Besides the famous authors of the decade, including F. Yezierska and Larsen depicted the struggles and tribulations of minority women during the fermenting s, with a view to illustrating the impact of ethnicity and race on the individual female identity.
Yezierska, a Jewish-American immigrant, and Larsen, a biracial American woman, share an interest in capturing the nuances of belonging to a particular community as an in-between subject. Particularly in the s, the literary environment was marked by the fiction of such trailblazing authors as F.
In the s, Yezierska started writing about the female immigrant experience with a view to capturing the connections between gender and ethnicity, while Larsen became interested in depicting the complexity of the intersections between gender and race.
Much of their fiction is semiautobiographical as both writers used their own lives as sources of inspiration. Hart and Anna A. Helga Crane, the protagonist of Quicksand, is a biracial woman white mother, black father who is on a quest for an individual identity in a world that is divided into either black-only or white-only communities.
From the beginning of the novel, Helga is uncertain which community she belongs to because of the color of her skin light brown. She navigates American spaces — in the North and in the South — and European spaces — in Denmark —, trying to achieve a sense of belonging either to the black community, or to the white, respectively. During her quest, she encounters four men — three black men and a white one — who define her in various ways: James Vayle, Robert Anderson, Axel Olsen Copenhagen , and the Reverend Mr.
Pleasant Green. While navigating these two opposite spaces, she is surrounded by three men who crave her company as a woman: Lipkin, the poor Jewish immigrant poet and editor whom she has met in the ghetto, John Manning, the wealthy American philanthropist, and Jacques Hollins formerly Jaky Solomon , the successful Jewish-American designer on Fifth Avenue. On the other hand, John Manning is the only one who can offer her the beautiful and elegant things she craves for in life: custom-made clothes to reflect her personality, simple but expensive decorative objects, etc.
From the beginning of the novel, Sonya finds herself in a gendered emotional in-between space: she is in a position of inferiority — as a woman and as an immigrant — in her relationship with Manning, but she is also different from other immigrant women in the Jewish community on the Lower East Side, such as Gittel Stein. Consequently, she initiates the interview with Manning, stepping out of the comfort of the ghetto space into a neutral space which he inhabits at the moment in front of the settlement house where he lives now and considers his subsequent invitation to lunch as the first step towards a new life.
Similar to Sonya, who distinguishes herself from other Jewish- American immigrant women due to her relentless pursuit of beauty and determination to succeed, Helga pines for beauty and color in her life, which marks her as different from the other African-American women in the school community of Naxos, in the American South. In the public spaces in Naxos, she is painfully aware of her difference and would like to leave but does not have enough money.
That was the crux of the whole matter. For Helga, it accounted for everything, her failure here in Naxos, her former loneliness in Nashville. As suggested in the play of light and shadow in her room, in the in-between space in Naxos, Helga experiences much pressure to conform, and she feels torn between resisting conformity and trying to somehow meet those societal expectations, as suggested in her engagement to Vayle and her attitude towards Anderson.
In her endeavor to impress and conquer Manning, Sonya starts refashioning herself into an immigrant woman who appreciates simple but tasteful objects. First of all, she understands the importance of appearance and the visual power of expensive but understated clothes.
As Hollins had also refashioned himself from Jaky Solomon in order to become a successful designer and gain access to the wealthy American clientele, Sonya believes that they are kindred spirits who share a great understanding and love of beauty. At the same time, the meeting with Hollins places Sonya in another in-between space, this time between Hollins and Manning, as Hollins seems to like her too and is jealous because Sonya only has eyes for Manning.
In this space, she becomes an object of desire because of her passionate and fiery feminine being, coveted by both men. On the other hand, during her first meeting with Hollins, their common ethnic background sets them on more equal footing, although he is an accomplished and wealthy designer and she an immigrant woman with lofty ideals.
Still, during this encounter, Hollins has the upper hand because he is the one who recreates her so as to bring out the beauty and passion in her; like Pygmalion, Hollins is the creator, the giver, and Sonya is the subject, the receiver, albeit in the same ethnic community. During the first meeting, the opposition between Sonya and Manning is highlighted not only in terms of their different nature, but also of their clothes, a leitmotif that permeates the novel.
The rich hidden quietness of his silk tie; even his shoes had a hand-made quality to them! After their encounter in public spaces, Sonya agrees to meet with Manning in the privacy of her room to talk about working together. Moreover, in order to subtly coax Manning to propose to her, Sonya uses her feminine charm to persuade the men in her Jewish community to help her: Hollins to create her designer suit, Mr.
Rosenblat, her landlord, to repaint her room, and Honest Abe, the pawnbroker, to lend her money to buy furniture. Harlem becomes a new in-between space for Helga, in a different black community, seemingly more cosmopolitan, where she feels comfortable at first.
However, while in Naxos Helga had been aware of her difference in the black community because of her love for beautiful and colorful things, in Harlem she is painfully reminded of her white ancestry which she has to hide from her African-American acquaintances. While Helga takes a radical decision to remove herself physically from the United States and look for a home in a completely different geographical space, Sonya finds a space, the settlement house, where she and Manning can connect professionally.
Although Sonya was never a supporter of the methods practiced in settlement houses, this time, she idealizes this space because she identifies it with Manning and wants to believe that it is different from other such places for immigrant uplift. Sonya navigates this new in-between space of the settlement house in a double capacity: on the one hand, she has inhabited this space as an immigrant, who was supposed to learn how to become an American.
On the other hand, working for, and later, with Manning, grants her a different status in the settlement environment as she intends to suggest ways of making the settlement work better, for the real benefit of the immigrants.
Her relationship with Manning progresses; he feels more and more drawn to Sonya, as he tries in vain to decipher her mystery, and after they spend some time at his country estate, he asks her to marry him. So far, Sonya has moved in this in-between space, where she has shared ideals with Manning, almost as his equal. This space has also offered her the opportunity to try out a new identity as an American, more restrained in her behavior, and to adhere to American, rather than Jewish, values.
Am I one of them? Has our love made us alike? Just because I am his wife, have I become his kind? Will his people accept me — and will I accept them? Her dream of decorating the house where they are going to live together, choosing the colors and textures that would create a cozy home, is shattered because everything is already in the right place; the house is more austere than she had expected, and she does not feel at home. Where am I?
I got to think the thoughts from my own head. I got to act from the feelings in my own heart. Still, Sonya wants to help Manning with the settlement house work, and this time, she steps into this in-between space as the wealthy wife of an American philanthropist. Upon looking at this environment with more objective eyes than before, she remembers the patronizing attitude of the settlement workers and her initial abhorrence of their idea of social uplift, and she realizes that she cannot change this space the way she would really like to.
She manages to create a dress, the Sonya dress, which becomes a success. Sonya decides to go back to Hollins only after she has created the dress, hoping that their common ethnic heritage will bring them together as partners in business and life, as she believes that he understands her fiery passion better than Manning.
Sonya becomes a fashion designer. Both or neither? Is this the price I must pay because I want beauty? Always to be torn on the winds of doubt and uncertainty — never have rest — never find peace? This may also signify an emotional in-between space, where she tries to make sense and reconcile, perhaps, her past experience with Manning and her future with Hollins.
At the end of the novel, Sonya has become stronger and has perhaps achieved a clearer understanding of her own identity; she seems to have found a space of her own, by working with Hollins to create beautiful and affordable things for other immigrants. On the other hand, after her experiences in Naxos, Chicago, and New York, Helga feels that she has failed to connect with the black community in the United States and hopes that she will finally find a home in Europe, with her white Danish relatives.
Copenhagen represents a different kind of in- between space, which Helga, like in other places before, approaches with anticipation, perhaps a little fear of the unfamiliar, a place where she feels she belongs, for a while. She feels elated and happy at being received with such warmth by her white relatives. You must have bright things to set off the color of your lovely brown skin.
Striking things, exotic things. Not to you. Not to any white man. After a chance meeting with James Vayle, which again highlights her difference and lack of conformity, and a passionate kiss with Robert Anderson, to whom she feels sexually attracted but who refuses to have a relationship with her because he is married to her friend Anne Grey, Helga grows more disillusioned, insecure and lonely.
She ends up marrying Reverend Mr. Pleasant Green, hoping that she has finally found a stable relationship and a home she can call her own. Initially, the black women in the congregation worship her husband, the pastor, and look upon Helga as a temptress, who trapped the reverend into marriage through her sexuality, although they end up pitying her after her fourth childbirth.
In fact, marriage turns out to be very different from what she had expected it to be, and she feels how she slowly succumbs to the dreary and joyless daily routine of married life. Similar to Salome of the Tenements, Quicksand ends full circle; it begins and ends in the South, in the same stifling atmosphere; however, while in Naxos Helga had the will and energy to leave everything behind and start anew, she seems to have lost all her hope in Alabama, so a final departure from here seems less likely, mainly because of her children, whom she is reluctant to leave behind.
Something like it she had experienced before. In Naxos. In New York. In Copenhagen. She has lost all her love of beautiful and colorful objects and decorations that she had cultivated in Naxos and also in Copenhagen; her search for an individual identity has become futile, and she ends up in this final black in-between space still feeling that she does not belong anywhere: not to the black community, not to her family, and, more importantly, not even to herself.
Helga, on the other hand, has lived a life in constant motion, torn between the desire to be a part of a black or a white community and the reluctance to conform to the expectations of either community, both in the United States and in Europe. In her search for acceptance and a sense of belonging beyond the physical markers of race, Helga, marked by her gender and sexuality, ends up defeated emotionally.
Notes: 1 For more on Yezierska as an avant-garde ethnic writer during modernism, see Konzett. Works Cited Avery, Elizabeth, ed. Modern Jewish Women Writers in America. New York: Palgrave, Axelrod, Mark R. Lorna Sage. Barnett, Pamela E. Currell, Susan. American Culture in the s.
Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, Coklin, Ljiljana. Cronin, Gloria, L. Encyclopedia of Jewish-American Literature. New York: Facts on File, Friedman, Natalie. Glavanakova, Alexandra. Sofia: KX: Critique and Humanism, Gray, Jeffrey. Harrison-Kahan, Lori. Hart, Betty L. Pasadena: Salem P, Hostetler, Ann. Elizabeth Ann Beaulieu. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, Hutchinson, George.
Keresztesi, Rita. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, Konzett, Delia Caparoso. Kort, Carol. A to Z of American Women Writers. Larsen, Nella. Mineola, NY: Dover, Monda, Kimberly. Naveh, Gila Safran. Gloria L. Cronin and Alan L. Okonkwo, Christopher N.
Piep, Karsten. Roberts, Kimberley. Rottenberg, Catherine. Stubbs, Katherine. Tate, Claudia. Wald, Priscilla. Michael P. Kramer and Hana Wirth-Nesher. Wall, Cheryl A. Angelyn Mitchell and Danille K. Yezierska, Anzia. Salome of the Tenements. Urbana: U of Illinois P, The intersection between race and disability in the case of Chang and Eng questions, disturbs, and alters racial and body hierarchies, and confirms that both race and disability are social constructs that take different shapes and meanings in different socio-political contexts.
The study argues that both race and disability are social constructs that take different shapes and meanings in different socio-political contexts. Gotanda is an Asian-American playwright, musician, director, and performer. His theatre tackles a range of thematic and aesthetic styles. He wrote on the Asian-American identity, diaspora, interracial marriage, love, history and politics.
Gotanda worked on a variety of artistic forms including plays, musicals, operas, dance and films. Finally I let go of everything — fact, fiction, documentation, history — and wrote. The play had its first production on the Zellerbach Playhouse at the University of California, Berkeley, in March Gotanda declares that he chose UC Berkeley for the debut of his play because of the large number of actors and the elaborate scenery and costumes required for the production that could not be afforded at a regional theatre.
Understandably, regional theaters would shy away from working on a new play with a cast of nineteen actors and big set pieces. It is a fully-mounted, creatively imagined, stunningly choreographed and costumed production, right up there with any I have seen in my plus years as a ticket-holder at ACT.
The study claims that Chang and Eng are prototypes of Asian-American otherness. The paradoxical positions occupied by the twins reflect the contradictory stereotypes used to identify Asian Americans; i. The racial formation theory was developed by Michael Omi and Howard Winant in the first edition of their book Racial Formation in the United States Omi and Winant developed their theory in two further editions of the same book in and They trace the formation of race in the United States starting from the second half of the twentieth century to the twenty-first century, arguing that race is socially constructed and is connected to economic, cultural, social and political forces.
In discussing the intersection between race and disability, many scholars deal with the deployment of disability as a metaphor for racism and of racism as a metaphor for disability. Jennifer C. He finds in the black man a model of disability. Both are social outcasts pigeonholed by a society of whites and abled people who exclusively reserve the right to define and stigmatize blackness and disability.
Christopher M. Bell calls for keeping a conversation between blackness and disability in order to discover their fallacies and rethink their representation. Racism and inequality in American history have often been justified through a Eugenic perception of race and its connection to disability. Douglas C. That is, not only has it been considered justifiable to treat disabled people unequally, but the concept of disability has been used to justify discrimination against other groups by attributing disability to them.
When categories of citizenship were questioned, challenged, and disrupted, disability was called on to clarify and define who deserved, and who was deservedly excluded from, citizenship. In Eugenics, racial characteristics were interpreted as limiting and disabling of human capabilities and calls for eradicating the biologically disabled unfits were very popular Galton; Paul; Sanger.
The freak shows in the nineteenth century were actual manifestations of the anti-racial theories and Eugenics. These curiosity shows introduced unfitting disabled others to amuse and entertain white voyeurs. Showcasing connected Asian twins like Chang and Eng helped to inculcate the connection between race and disability in the American common perception and to separate American standard humanness from ethnic anomalies.
Ironically, Chang and Eng could conversely refute the fallacy of this dichotomy as the twins managed to move from the status of the anomaly to the status of the successful other. The play starts in with the fifty-seven-year-old renowned Chang and Eng touring London with the famous freak show organizer Phineas T. Barnum in order to recover their Civil War losses.
The narrative then returns to Siam in when the nine-year-old twins were discovered by Captain Hunter and brought to America in order to expose their conjoined bodies in front of the American public. Throughout the play, Chang and Eng are defined and redefined in a manner that oscillates between xenophobia and xenophilia.
They have not seen the likes of you in color of skin or shape of body. The twins discover that they are not business partners with Captain Hunter as they had expected in Siam. To their dismay, Hunter treats them as orientalist commodities and sells their contract to Abel and Susan Coffin who reserve the sole right to present them in curiosity shows in return for very low wages.
In the first exhibition of the twins, Abel and Susan Coffin introduce them to the American audiences as freaks from the mysterious Orient, an enigmatic combination of the primitive, the defective, the grotesque and the alien: Abel: OS Ladies and Gentlemen. Presenting the amazing Siamese Double Boys. Born in the wild of Siam. Cursed by a freakish body. Rescued by an English Captain. Then tamed and mannered by its American owners, Susan and Abel Coffin. Never seen before by occidental eyes!
Please look upon this curiosity of nature! Marvel at this living exhibition of the Mysterious Orient! The Coffins command the twins to rigidly hold their poses during the performances in order to give a chance for the spectators to enjoy the voyeurism of abnormal ethnic others and to rejuvenate the insurmountable distance between the normal Occident and the abnormal mysterious Orient. The juxtaposition of the ethno-disabled bodies of the Siamese twins devalues the Asian body and inspires the onlookers with a sense of physical and cultural normalcy and superiority.
Disability lends its crippling traits to race, thereby blurring the boundaries between racial and freakish attributes. This voyeurism interest is maximized through fabricated stories about the twins that reiterate their monstrosity and show them as savages that were saved and tamed by a Western guardian, and shipped to America as unique natural wonders.
Thomson elaborates this antithetical relationship by saying: The American produces and acts, but the onstage freak is idle and passive. The American looks and names, but the freak is looked at and named. The American is mobile, entering and exiting the show at will and ranging around the social order, but the freak is fixed, confined by the material structures and the conventions of staging and socially immobilized by a deviant body. The American is rational and controlled, but the freak is carnal and contingent.
This grammar of embodiment culturally normalizes the American and abnormalizes the freak. America also found in Chang and Eng symbols of egalitarian principles and the emerging American Dream. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the new nation was torn between a British history of class system and a newly-born national independent identity founded on equality and the rights of the common man.
With the nineteenth century heading on, the American WASP culture was challenged by an emerging race, class, and gender consciousness that threatened to re-conceptualize the American Anglo-European identity. Meanwhile, the westward expansion and the ongoing American exploration of the frontiers demanded a progressive society that valued individual entrepreneurialism.
Within a nineteenth-century racist climate, calls for slavery abolition and women and minority rights were loudly heard in the United States which eventually led to the Civil War in American white particularism and American tendencies towards cultural pluralism existed side by side. In response to these oscillating cultural tendencies, the connections between the abled and the disabled and the boundaries between the white and the racial were shifting and taking different forms when placed in different socio-political contexts.
Chang and Eng successfully utilize their conjoined bodies to commercialize their orientalism and to accentuate their entrepreneurial skills in a capitalist society that values individualism and personal success. The untraversable difference between the Siamese twins and white spectators is seen in a new light by Ms.
You are two. I do not know. You are Siamese. I wonder what your organ looks like? This grotesque beauty of the freak body becomes a secret fantasy to the white woman. Instead we went home, closed our bedroom doors and fantasized about this posterior until one day we woke up and voila! We had big arses! The aestheticism of disability re-channels the meaning of race. Ugliness is replaced by bizarre beauty and subordination gives place to empowerment.
After the termination of their five-year contract with the Coffins, Chang and Eng could manage their performances and sell their own wares. The erotic experience with Elizabeth teaches them to place their disability within an emerging capitalist paradigm and to present their deformity willingly as an oriental luxury. Chang and Eng employ their disabled Asian bodies as oriental luxuries that they could commercialize to find a place in American society.
In less than five years, the Siamese brothers could make a fortune and achieve a respectful status in America. During the naturalization ceremony, they are Christianized and given the name Bunker. They own plantations and black slaves in North Carolina, and through their richness and expensive offerings, they could get married to two white sisters, Adelaide and Sally Yates.
The Bunkers form a large family composed of twenty-two American children, standing as an example of the success of the American dream despite their Asianness and deformity. The Siamese twins return to sideshows after the end of the Civil War in order to compensate their losses.
They approach Phineas T. Barnum, one of the most famous freak-show exhibitors in America, who presents them among his menagerie of multiracial curiosities. In postbellum America when the country was looking for egalitarianism without threatening white supremacy, Chang and Eng served the mission. Their bodies were commercialized and their deformity was accepted as grotesquely beautiful rather than threatening.
Speaking in a large microphone, P. Barnum introduces the twins as superstars: Barnum: More extraordinary than the Giant of Cardiff! More amazing than the Great pyramids of Egypt! The 8th Wonder of the new world, ladies and gentlemen, after twenty five long years away, welcome back your old friends, Chang and Eng. Bogdan explains: With the aggrandized mode of presentation emphasized how, with the exception of the particular physical, mental, or behavioral condition, the freak was an upstanding, high-status person with talents of a conventional and socially prestigious nature.
Under this mode some exhibits were presented as prototypical Americans …. One, some, or all of the following attributes were fabricated, elevated or exaggerated, and then flaunted: social position, achievements, talents, family, and physiology. By enabling disability, the Asian body shares various poles with the Caucasian one, including economic success, social status, and Americanness.
The boundaries previously created between whiteness and race through disability are repositioned within the same space when located in a different socio-political context. While Chang and Eng were exhibited by the Coffins as two disabled mysteriously connected Asian twins when they first arrived to the country, they transgress the law of presentation set up for them and define themselves in a new manner; albeit this self-presentation is manipulated by the society itself. Confronted with Afong Moy, the Chinese bound-feet lady, Chang and Eng place themselves within a liberal capitalist ideology that treats their deformity as a commodity.
Wu writes: Although both texts invoke a reconciliatory politics during times of civil unrest, they demonstrate an uneasy ambivalence about the national unity they advocate. He suggests that the actors playing the roles of Chang and Eng should appear as two distinct individuals in some scenes and as real-life connected twins in others Gotanda 2. The twins appear on stage as connected brothers in times of glory and success, and act separately in their desperate moments.
The twins fail to define their relationship to Americanness, Asianness, connectivity, and individuality in the same manner that America swings between individualism and community. Eng repeatedly muses over this identity conflict in the play. In their late years, they live in two different houses spending three days in each house to meet their wives.
I do not believe in God. I believe in you Chang. The racial affiliation of the twins is disabled in order to establish the superiority and normalcy of whites. However, it is through the intersection of race and disability that these hierarchies are questioned, disturbed, and altered.
While the monstrosity of disability categorizes the racial as abnormal, the aestheticism of the disabled body reshapes the racial figure to be socially accepted. Disability could structure and restructure racial boundaries and move the Asian body from racial stigmatization to social integration. Chang and Eng are typical examples of this identity crisis, cultural anxiety, and socio-political construction of race and disability. Simultaneously, the twins represent different racial paradoxical paradigms: the exotics, the aliens, the racially and physically pollutants, the American heroes, and the model minority.
Works Cited Backe, Emma Louise. Baine, Wallace. Barnum, Kevin Chang. Baynton, Douglas C. Lennard J. Bei, Nichi. Bell, Christopher M. Bogdan, Robert. Chicago: Chicago UP, Bullock, Ken. Galton, Francis. Hereditary Genius.
London: MacMillan, Goodley, Dan. Disability Studies: An Interdisciplinary Introduction. Gotanda, Philip Kan. I Dream of Chang and Eng. Gotanda Art Plant, Haller, John S. Jarrett, Charles. Kriegel, Leonard. McKee, Katie Hughes. Murillo, Aimee. Omi, Michael, and Howard Winant.
Philomena Essed and Davis Theo Goldberg. Oxford: Blackwell, Paul, Diane B. Jonathan Hodge and Gregory Radick. Saito, Natsu Taylor. Sanger, Margaret. The Pivot of Civilization. Spencer, Herbert. The Principles of Biology. London: Williams and Norgate, Shakespeare, Tom.
Tchen, John Kuo Wei. Baltimore: John Hopkins UP, Thomson, Rosemarie Garland. New York: Columbia UP, Twain, Mark. Mark Twain. American Publishing Company, Wu, Cynthia. I would argue that Doctorow acts here mainly to denounce excessive material culture in the context of egotistic, upper-class Manhattan dwelling at the end of the nineteenth century.
I would also like to show that the novelist criticizes the idea of material progress along more than a hundred years, from the end of the nineteenth century, when the plot starts, to the beginning of the twenty-first century, when the novel was written. At the same time, Homer and Langley brings to mind ideas of exhaustion of the human, who agrees to be literally replaced by objects.
The fact that such a phenomenon occurs already at the end of the nineteenth century suggests that there might have never been a plenary moment of being human, as we have long entertained the closest possible relationship and even synthesis with the non-human world of objects and tools.
Keywords: E. Doctorow, Homer and Langley, material culture, self- reliance, excess, regress, nineteenth century, twentieth century. Homer and Langley Collyer were historical characters who lived in Harlem, Manhattan between the end of the nineteenth century till their death in The sons of a prosperous upper-class Victorian family, they later became reclusive hoarders who lived in poverty and squalor.
Details of their death were published on the front page of New York journals, as they were discovered buried under colossal amounts of debris in their Fifth Avenue brownstone, after years of isolation in their home. In his trademark merging of historical fact and fiction, which he experimented in Ragtime, The Book of Daniel, and The Waterworks, Doctorow starts from this kind of spectacular occurrence but goes beyond it.
Despite several contacts with the world outside, which reflect the major historical occurrences of the decades they traverse, the Collyer brothers have a tendency to isolate themselves in their mansion. Even so, they are aware especially of the technological innovations and of the fast succeeding historical events of their age.
Fascinated by the objects that people discard on a daily basis in Manhattan, especially Langley Collyer starts amassing them in their house. Thus, their Fifth Avenue brownstone slowly transforms into a kind of derelict warehouse. From the beginning, Langley attempts no less than to design a universal, dateless newspaper that would represent an absolute synthesis of their time and simultaneously capture the very essence of truth.
As in Edgar Allan Poe's Fall of the House of Usher, the idea of Victorian self- sufficiency is considered in connection with a regressive rather than progressive trajectory of history, which renders the novel a counternarrative of progress.
In his exclusive Amazon. I make them to be two brothers who opted out of civilization and pulled the world in after them. This occurs significantly in the context of Manhattan dwelling at the turn of the twentieth century. The Collyer house consequently becomes a synecdoche for Manhattan itself, in the context of excessive commodification. Homer and Langley performs a critique of historical progress, of the fetish-commodity and of the consumerist society, seen as materially excessive and wasteful.
What it attacks is no less than the metanarrative of progress, as well as reason and the notion of a non-historical, transcendental self. Such progress is shown to lead to an impasse resulting from the amounts of waste that it generates. Given the limited amount of physical space in Manhattan, a structure such as the Grid imposes a maximum saturation of each of its cells. In antithesis to the Grid, which is based on principles of rationality, implying transparency and openness, the houses were defined by closure, opacity and excess Tallack.
The Collyer house, where Homer and his brother Langley lived uninterruptedly since their childhood, is a typical, comfortable, aristocratic abode. To blind Homer, the house was a true interior sea, as he could navigate every room and up and down the stairs without hesitation …. From the beginning, the Collyer brownstone is precisely such a comfortable, self-contained place, dominated by a great number of possessions.
Such protective, plush interiors deny the aggressive industrialization and modernisation outside and project instead a self-sufficient world of stability suggestive of power and prestige. The oversized furniture items in the mansion are replete with imperial undertones that the house itself echoes. This way, we are given the full measure of the palpable density of wealth at a moment when Manhattan was seen as the centre of the modern world, randomly buying and reassembling European historical artefacts at its own discretion.
What Langley dreams to do is attempting to give some meaning to what he sees as the dispersed world of his age. Gathering discarded everyday objects, Langley tries to read and distil the spirit of his age in its quotidian manifestations. He is especially passionate about newspapers, which he buys daily in several editions. In fact, Langley collects journals with the explicit purpose of creating a unique newspaper of his own design, which would be a timeless, absolute source of information accessible to everyone in exchange for only five cents cf.
It is to this purpose that Langley aims to extract and categorise each event in the quotidian press — in his view, such a Platonic enterprise would render the world a simplified place of meaningful forms. The resulting paper would comprise all temporal dimensions and information covering all geographical areas, which resembles an Enlightenment type of encyclopaedia. In order to accomplish his project, Langley employs a whole economy and architecture of information.
Yet, the suggestion is that in modern times the amount of daily information in the press is so massive that it proves ultimately impossible to contain. Such a journal would focus especially on American life as the supreme source of information and inspiration, which would thus be rendered universal. Simultaneously, it hints at the fascination for grandiosity that characterizes the American spirit itself.
Considering its ample proportions, the journal would make all other sources of information redundant. A typical example of a Lyotardean metanarrative Lyotard 21 , it is a generalising, all-levelling attempt that pays little attention to the idea of otherness.
Such an enterprise discloses the profoundly irrational dimension of his efforts together with the size of the ego at that time. Rather than belonging to the domain of universals, knowledge is shown to be historical and contingent. Instead, Homer and Langley contradicts the idea of existential progress and speaks about the suffocating weight of history seen in its exclusively material dimensions, as an infinite collection of debris.
Progress and Excess The affluent American society after the Civil War was oriented towards the future and highly trustful of progress. Progress described a trajectory that America easily identified with, as it seemed to reflect its own ethos of the New Adam who denied the past and fused with the future, eager to start anew. The main coordinates of the late nineteenth century cities were giant size, affluence and expansion, all of which were linked to the belief in reason and the trust in the individual.
Seen in its exclusively male, white hypostasis, the individual was invested with almost divine powers to continue its civilisation of the world. The individual was seen as a solitary presence of gigantic proportions, a universe in itself whose own interests had priority in an equation that excluded the idea of community. Homer and Langley is an ironic consideration of such a perspective, as we shall further see.
To be better understood, the aggrandising modern self needs to be placed in the context of massive economic growth starting with the end of the nineteenth century. The desire to possess played a crucial role, as the main social mechanism of development. In a society based on the fascinating spectacle of objects, a whole cult of the commodity developed, which led to its fetishization.
Concerning this latter aspect, there is in Homer and Langley a whole tradition of gathering items which the brothers inherit from their parents who were also passionate collectors. Collecting added a layer of protection against aggressive industrialism in late Victorian times, when it acted as a comfortable, homely means of activating the past or exotic realms. They also indicate the desire to appropriate distant cultures and the attempt to become familiar with new domains of scientific interest in a world obsessed with evolutionary ideas.
The oddity of such disparate items as those that the Collyers bring home underlies what will later be seen as their surrealism. Eclectically relocated in a new environment oblivious of their initial, practical purpose, such objects stand proof of an intense process of reification and material alienation already at work in the nineteenth century city.
Their world is the result of a paradoxical combination of self-reliance and greed, encouraged by the very ethos of the time. It is this tension between self-containment as a leading principle of the Victorian domestic space and material excess that will render their house implosive in the end. Langley regularly brings home artefacts that reflect recent technical discoveries or mark historical events. What he mostly gathers are already discarded items, waste, whose degradation will continue inside their house through lack of use and chaotic accumulation.
On the other hand, it shows the intensity of the process of consumption and the ephemerality of desire, which result in the transience of the object itself along the entire twentieth century. Thus, even before mass production took full swing later in the twentieth century, material profusion coupled with the infinite thirst for novelty led to substantial consumption. There was always a next generation of products, the result of unrelenting technical progress, that lured consumers, pressuring them to purchase even more.
The uncontrollable multiplication of things led to their fast transformation into waste at the end of the nineteenth century, as well as during the entire twentieth century. In the novel, material things fast reveal not only their bulkiness but also their essential immobility and uselessness, which will gradually devour all space in the Collyer house. Their debris side is the direct result of excessive production, which leads to their dispensable character in contrast with their initial appeal.
Despite the practical purposes that they sometimes serve in the novel, obsolescence dramatically shortens their life-span. The list of items that the two brothers hoard is too long to be exhausted here. It would be sufficient to mention only the most significant item that it comprises: the newspaper. Such a never-ending project that aims to thoroughly categorise the daily events in the press necessitates larger and larger quantities of papers. Stacks of them are mentioned all through the novel.
The most significant item of the Collyer collections remains the old Model T Ford automobile that Langley decides to bring home in pieces one day. Once a symbol of speed and efficiency and a fetish of the whole of America, the Model T Ford is perceived here exclusively in its refuse dimension, although its fetish connotations persist.
Later, Langley will decide to employ the automobile as an improvised electricity generator to furnish power to their residence. This way he reinforces his principles of obstinate self- sufficiency and independence from the larger city structures, which is yet another of his obsessions, thus underlining the increasingly insular character of their house. At the same time, the fragmentary, entropic character of artefacts might stand for the discontinuous trajectory of historical progress itself.
Objects in the novel might be said to self-replicate and thus acquire an existence of their own, at the expense of human existence. Dwelling space in the novel is itself reconceptualised. Gradually, the Collyer home becomes a perfect example of the uncanny, a true interior city jungle or a city within the city, as mysterious, meandering and dark as the urban geography outside.
With enough light someone could make his way through the zigzagging corridors of newspaper bales, or find passage by slipping sideways between piles of equipment of one kind or another Sharpe At a certain point in the plot, Langley decides to bolt and brace the mansion door and close the custom fitted shutters, which leaves them in darkness.
So does their wreckage, as their living conditions start deteriorating more and more. Their relationship with the world outside also worsens, as the Collyers are derided and attacked by everybody, from the press, to their creditors and their neighbours. They respond with equal aggressiveness, buying some old pistols, reinforcing the bolts on their entrance door and setting up traps against possible intruders.
Ironically, the entire house turns into a gigantic trap that, rather than capturing any intruders, will irremediably confine its owners inside. Finally, the mansion floors collapse under the weight of their accumulated items, killing the two emaciated inhabitants. This last episode of the novel symbolically illustrates the extraordinary volume that the inanimate world of objects has come to attain in the last two centuries.
The resulting pressure is what Doctorow investigates in the test tube which the Collyer house represents. The Collyer house stands in a synecdochic relationship with congested Manhattan but also with the limited space of modern urban dwelling itself. Gathered in large quantities, the very items that marked the nineteenth and twentieth century idea of progress, especially the newspaper but equally the phonograph, the automobile, the typewriter, the computer, etc.
The result is a reverse trajectory that denies the very substance of progress, transforming it into regress. The fact that material progress is fundamentally regressive is also suggested by the descending line of the plot. The trajectory thus traces a move from riches-to-rags rather than from rags-to-riches, which repudiates the utopia of the American Dream. The novel represents a dismissal of the so-called forward march of history and of its continuity, in favour of a look that focuses backwards instead, at the material destruction that progress leaves in its trail.
Debris is commonly forgotten, hidden, and repressed. Gathering the discarded items that Manhattan has disposed of, Langley temporarily brings them to light. The novel provides a radical criticism of history and of the idea of progress, which it prefers to see with a backward look.
Views on the Self and on Historicity in the Novel The Collyer house also stands for the narrow geography of the modern, nineteen and twenty century self, who enjoys possessions and who, in his splendour and singularity, rejects the idea of otherness. We will keep our own counsel. And defend ourselves. What is ironised here are the American pragmatist ideas of self-reliance, trust in the future and optimism, which are shown to have resulted in fierce individualism and isolation in the novel.
The fast succession of commodities in the market is designed with a view to triggering the illusion of perpetual renewal in the buyer. Yet, no such redefinition occurs in the novel, which demonstrates the insubstantial nature of material progress as well as the failure of the metanarrative of the strong individual in the late postmodern paradigm. The multiplication of objects is grotesque and absurd, leading to entropy, even as production is based on notions of technology and science that implicitly eulogise reason which they see as triumphant.
Homer and Langley sets self-reliance and isolation in dialectical contrast to insatiability. It is the tension between stubborn, individualistic autonomy and the ever-aggrandising egos of the industrial and post- industrial societies that leads to gradual self-destruction in the novel. Now this River of the Far divides Calabria from Sicily, and at its entrance, near La Bagnara, is that famous sea- peril called Scylla, while at its exit is another called Carybdis. Richard's fleet, and his landing in Sicily Sept.
Rich, of Devizes, p. They were arranged and set in order as follows. The first ship had three rudders, thirteen anchors, 30 oars, two sails, and triple ropes of every kind ; moreover, it had everything that a ship can want in pairs — saving only the mast and boat. It had one very skilful captain, and fourteen chosen mariners! The ship was laden with forty horses of price, all well trained for war, and with all kinds of arms for as many riders, for forty footmen, and fifteen sailors.
Moreover it had a full year's food for all these men and horses. All the ships were laden in the same way ; but each buss took double cargo and gear. The king's treasure, which was exceedingly great and of inestimable value, was divided amongst the ships and the busses so that if one part was en- dangered the rest might be saved.
When everything was thus arranged, the king with a small following, and the chief men of the army with their attendants, put off from the shore, preceding the fleet in galleys. It had two masts, but sometimes three. The word still survives, both in the ordinary French language and locally, as the name of a small vessel among the herring fishers of Dunkerque — buse, buche and bins, cf.
O E Butsa-carlas , Boat-men. Nor did the judges spare age and sex, out there- was the same law to stranger and native. Richard's demands on Tancred. English " Long-tails. I, 1 1 79 at the age of fourteen. Louis died Thursday, 18 Sept. Philip took the cross along with Hemy II. Philip died 14 July, His will, dated Sept. The king of Sicily, thinking little of the king of England's threats and less othis demands, sent back his [Richard's] sister with just her bed gear ; but at the same time, because of her queenly rank, he sent 1,, terrins.
On the third day after this Sept. Here, when he had fortified the place with a band of knights, he set his sister. When William II. The rumour of such a discovery played a part in the romantic story of Richard's own death ; and in sober history, three silver tables and one table of gold are mentioned in the will of Charles the Great.
Stubbs it weighed 20 grains. So keeping peace with all those who owned the king of France for lord they sought to take vengeance for all their wrongs from the king of England and his " tailed men. James de Vitry ob. Louis' brother, Robert of Artois, that drove the former to reply that he and his party would that day force their way so far within the Saracen ranks that Count Robert would not dare to follow even at the tail of William's horse.
Cauda is the remote ancestor of the modern English coward, but it seems uncertain by what steps the mediaeval word ac- quired its connotation of fear or shame. Du Cange suggests the English were so called because of the splendour of their pointed shoes fcaudas calceorum ; but it is perhaps better to take the word in its more natural sense as referring to cowards through the metaphor of timid animals sneaking off with their tails between then legs.
Coart is the name of the hare in the great mediaeval fabliau of Reynard the Fox. The English, especially the men of Kent, were accused of having tails because of their insults to the first Christian missionaries, which were thought to be miraculously avenged. His wrath frightened his nearest friends, his court is in alarm, the chiefs of his army sit around his throne each in his own rank, and it would have been very easy to read in the president's features what he was thinking of, had anyone dared to lift his eyes and look him in the face.
They must avenge themselves here or old women and children will mock at them over sea. But no one need follow him unless of his own accord. They promise to obey whatever he may order and are ready to make a way through mountains and brazen walls. Let him move his eyebrow ; and the whole of Sicily shall be his if he order it, con- quered by their toil , aye, if he wish it, the whole [host] will go even to the Columns of Hercules in blood. When the clamour ceased, quieted by the serious- ness of the king, he said : " What I hear pleases me and in thus preparing to throw off your shame you strengthen my heart.
Hicnard comes to Messina and frees his sister, Q,. Roger of Howden, in. But the king of France and all the great men of the city of Messina, and the clergy and people, stood on the shore marvelling because of all they saw and what they had heard concerning the king of England and his power.
When the king of England had come ashore he at once had an interview with Philip, king of France. And after that interview the king of France at once went on board his own vessels as though he were desirous of setting out for the land of Jerusalem ; but directly he left the harbour the wind shifted and blew against him, upon which he returned unwillingly and sadly to Messina. But the king of England entered the house of Reginald de Muhec in the vineyards outside the city, where a lodging was being prepared him.
Michael's day, came the king of France to the lodging of the king of England's sister, whom he saw, and rejoiced. Here on Oct. On Oct. Now when the citizens of Messina saw what the king had done they began to conjecture that he would seize the whole island if he could ; and for this reason it became an easy matter to stir them up against him.
Richard takes Messina, Lombard treachery; French, perfidy. And she began to call him names, and could scarcely refrain from smiting him with her fists or tearing out his hair. And lo! These seized the pilgrim, beat him piti- fully, tore out his hair, and, when they had trod him under foot, left him almost lifeless. But king Richard, as soon as the uproar arose, came forth and begged for peace and friendship, declaring that he had come on a peaceful mission and merely to fulfil his pilgrimage ; nor did he cease from his efforts till everyone had departed without anger to his own home.
And yet, thanks to the industry of that old enemy of the human race, the contention was renewed on the morrow in a more deadly way. Meanwhile the two kings had been conversing with the justices of Sicily and the chief men of the city as regards the common peace and safety.
Probably in this passage the word stands for the Italian-speaking population generally. The Lombards, though they had themselves just come from the contest, were dis- suading the king from believing this information, when there hurriedly appeared a third messenger run- ning up in haste and declaring that peace was not to be thought of while their very lives were in danger. Then the king leaving the conference at once went out on horseback to appease the quarrel.
Now there were two false and cunning Lombards at whose prompting the city crowd had been stirred up against the pil- grims. When king Richard arrived on the spot,where the two parties were already contending with fists and cudgels as well as with words, the Lombards attacked him with scandalous reproaches, though he was eager to separate the combatants. Margaritus is styled " Admiral," and is found acting along the coast of Syria with a fleet in When Tancred made terms with Richard in Nov.
Three years later, however, the emperor had him mutilated. One of his servants slew him at Rome in 1 while getting ready an expedition for making Philip Augustus emperor of Constantinople. His energy in helped to save the remnants of the Christian possessions in the East ; and so noted a sailor was he that his contemporaries called him " the King of the Sea " and " a second Neptune.
Then came the Lombards to the king of France, making submis- sion to him and praying him humbly for aid. Upon this the king of France took up arms as a man who knew the real truth told us and was ready to aid the Lombards rather than the men of the king of Eng- land. And this though he was bound by an oath to lend the latter faithful assistance. The gates of the city were barred, watchmen were set on the walls, and there rose a great din from those attacking and defending The French acted with the Lombards, and together made as it were one people ; but the beseigers were not aware that their allies had become their adversaries.
On learning his approach the Lombards immediately took to flight, and in a moment were scattered like sheep before the wolves. He married Matilda, daughter and heiress of the count of La Marche, after her father's death. He had been taken prisoner by Nuradin in at the disastrous battle of Harenc, near Antioch. About the year he is said to have started for the Holy Land once more, but, being taken prisoner, purchased his release and retired into a monastery, where he died in extreme old age.
His son, Hugh X. At the postern entrance he laid low several of them, disabling them from fighting with pilgrims anymore. As the enemies' darts and stones were flying thickly we lost three knights of special repute, to wit, Peter Torepreie, Matthew de Saulcy, and Ralph de Roverei. The number of citizens and others defending the walls was reckoned at more than 50, There might you see our galleys attempting to besiege the city from the harbour near the palace.
But the king of France kept them out of the main harbour, and hence it came to pass that some of them who were already within and would not depart perished by arrows. But why say more? King Richard got possession of Messina in one attack quicker than any priest could chant matins. Aye and many more of the citizens would have perished had not the king in his compassion ordered their lives to be spared.
Who can reckon the amount of money lost by the citizens? Whatever precious thing was found, whether gold or silver, became the possession of the conquerors. Moreover fire reduced the galleys [of the citizens] to dust. This was done to guard against their taking to flight and offering fresh resistance elsewhere. Roger of ' Howden, iii. The king of England's men [after taking the city] set up the banners of their king along the circuit of the fortifications.
At this the king of France was very indignant, and demanded that the king of England's banners should be taken down and his set up. Of the three great military orders in the East the Hospitallers or Knights of St. John drew their origin from a foundation for destitute pilgrims in Jerusalem founded by the citizens of Amalfi before the days of the first Crusade. The Templars owed their beginning to a Burgundian knight, Hugh de Payens, who about the year bound himself and a few comrades to protect pil- grims on their way to the Holy City.
The Knights of St. John were named not after the Baptist, but after a more obscure St. John Elyemon of Alexandria. Bernard, under whose auspices the regu- lations of the order were drawn up at. Troyes in By the middle of the XIHth century they were the owners of countless possessions— amounting to 9, manors— extending over almost all kingdoms from the Atlantic to the Jordan.
Nor were the wealth and power of the Hospitallers much inferior. On the third day after the capture of Messina the chiefs of the city and province gave the king of England hostages for the preservation of the peace ; saying they would deliver this city and the lordship of the whole province freely into the king's hands unless that lord Tancred, king of Sicily, should quickly make peace and do what was required of him. For the king was demanding from king Tancred Mount St. To him Tancred, king of Sicily, replied in these words: "I gave your sister Joan 1,, ten-ins, in lieu of her claim, before she left me.
As for the rest of your demands I will act in accordance with the custom of this realm. In Feb. In Oct. The counts and barons also swore that they would keep the same oath firmly. Then, with the good-will and advice of the whole army of pilgrims the two kings decreed that all pil- grims who should die on the way might dispose of their personal equipment and that of their horses as they wished.
So, too, as regards the half of their property, always providing that they remitted nothing home. The clerks of the chapels were to dispose of things pertaining to the chapel and of all their books at their discretion. The rumours of the time make him to have been murdered by his uncle king John in This betrothal in the text came to nothing.
In Richard sent him home to England with sealed instructions which resulted in the fall of Longchamp. He seems to have died in a. These were to spend the money thus acquired for th'e aid of the Holy Land as they saw necessary. And both the kings swore personally to keep this order leally and firmly during the whole journey on this side of the sea as well as the other. It was to hold good for the pilgrims of each kingdom both as regards those already arrived and others yet to come. Moreover let no one in the whole army play at any game for a stake — saving only knights and clerks, who, however, are not to lose more than 20 solidi in the 24 hours.
This, however, is hardly possible, though we have no notice of a grand master intermediate between Gerard de Rideford ob. J Ermengard de Daps, grandmaster Hugh III. He had made a previous pilgrimage to the Holy Land in n When Philip returned home he left the French troops under Hugh's command. Hugh died at Acre in July, He was descended from Robert II. The kings, however, may play at their good pleasure ; and in the royal lodgings the kings' servants may play for twenty solidi if the king so choose.
Also, by leave of the archbishops, bishops, counts, and barons and in their presence, servants may play for twenty solidi. If any sergeants, mariners, or other servants are found playing by themselves the sergeants shall be beaten naked through the army for three days unless they will pay a fine at the discretion of the aforesaid [trustees] ; so too with the other serving men. But, if the seamen gamble, they are in seaman's fashion to be ducked in the sea at early morn once every day, unless they too purchase exemption.
If, after starting on the journey, any pilgrim has borrowed from another man he shall pay the debt ; but so long as he is on the pilgrimage he shall not be liable for a debt contracted before starting. If any hired mariner, hired servant, or any one else, saving only clerks and knights, shall desert his lord on the pilgrimage no one shall take him in except with his lord's consent.
All transgressors of these statutes are subject to excommunication, and shall be punished in accordance with the aforesaid rules at the will of the aforesaid trustees. Moreover, the kings have decreed that no merchant of any kind may buy bread or flour in the army to sell it again, unless indeed some stranger has brought the flour and the seller has made it into bread.
Other merchants, no matter of what calling, shall only make a profit of one penny in ten. No one may sound the king's money on which his stamp appears unless it be cracked within the circle. No one is to buy any lifeless carcass for the purpose of selling it again, nor any live animal, unless he have killed it in the army.
No one is to raise the price of his wine after he has once had it cried. No one is to make bread for sale except at a penny cost. And let all merchants take note that the whole Far] is within the banlieue of the town, and that one English penny shall be given in all mercantile trans- actions for four Anjou pennies.
And it is to be understood that all the aforesaid decrees are promul- gated with the consent and good-will of the kings of France, of England, and of Sicily. For the thorns of his evil lusts had grown higher than his head, and there was no hand to root them up. Yet did God the father of mercies, who willeth not the death of a sinner but that he may be converted and live, turn on him once more the eyes of His mercy, giving him a penitent heart and calling him to repentance.
For he in his own person received penance from the aforesaid bishops ; and from that hour once more became a man fearing God, shunning ill and doing good Happy he who so falls only to rise up stronger Happy he who after repentance has not slipt back into sin. In his younger days he visited the Holy Land, and later was made abbot of Fiore.
About 1 1 70 he commenced a fierce attack on Peter Lombard's Book of Sentences, which he denounced as heretical. He taught that, as the age of the God of the Old Testament had given place to the reign of Christ the Son, so the reign of Christ was ultimately destined to be supplanted by that of the Spirit. This view, which is not altogether unlike one maintained by Mazzini in his earlier years, found a cordial reception in many minds, and about it was reported to be publicly taught by the Dominicans at Paris.
The beginning of the new era was fixed for A. Moreover he was a man learned in the Divine Scriptures and used to set forth the meaning of S. John's visions — those visions which S. John narrates in the Apocalypse and wrote with his own hand. In hearing his words the king of England and his followers took much pleasure. Saladin was the sixth, but he would soon lose Jerusalem.
And to him Joachim made answer : When seven years have passed from the day on which Jerusalem was taken. Then said the king : Where- fore then have we come here so soon? To which Joachim replied : Thy coming was an urgent necessity because the Lord will give thee the victory over his enemies and will exalt thy name above all the princes of the earth.
King 1 Richard's Christmas feast. Itinere Sacro. The day of Nativity I tell you truth did king Richard cry that all should come and hold the feast with him. And he brought the king of France to feast with him ; such trouble did he take. At Mattegriffun was the feast in the hall that the king of England had reared by his power, in despite of them of the land.
I was eating in the hall, but never did I see there a dirty cloth, nor a cup or spoon of wood. And I saw there such a fine service that each one had what pleased him. Nor ever did I see — so I think — any one give such rich gifts as king Richard gave on this occasion. For he left to the king of France and his folk vessels of gold and silver. On the same day after breakfast the Pisans and the Genoese made a seditious attack upon the oars- men of the king of England.
Now the noise came to the king's ears where he sat at meat in his castle Mattegriffun. Before leaving the island Richard destroyed this fortress in accordance with hi? The stem mate in Matte-Griffun maybe borrowed from the same Persian word to which we are said to owe the check-mate of modern chess — in which case we have here an allusion to this game already popular in the eleventh century ; or, as is less likely, it may correspond to the French word mater to slay, overcome, from the Latin mactare.
Richard earned the materials of this castle over sea with him and rebuilt it before the walls of Acre 10 June. The same authority makes him die in Then, after removing the table, all these men rose, armed themselves, and followed the king for the purpose of putting an end to this quarrel.
Yet, for all this, they could not do so ; but when night came on the disputants were parted one from the other. And, on the morrow, when the people was gathered together in the church of St. John of the Hospital, to hear the divine service there, a certain Pisan drew his knife and wounded one of the king's oarsmen in the church ; upon which the Pisans and the galley-men fell to again and many were slain on either side.
Then came the king of France and the king of England, with an armed following, and made peace between the two parties. Richard's betrothed wife comes out to Sicily. How den, iii. As they went home through the middle of the city they fell in with a certain rustic coming from a neighbouring hamlet.
Now his ass was laden with reeds that people call canes. Of these reeds the king of England and those with him each took one, using them to tilt against each other. By this blow the head-piece of the king of England was broken ; whereon the king, being wroth, set upon William so furiously as to make him and his horse stagger. And as the king was attempting to throw William to the ground, his own saddle was upset ; and the king came down quicker than he liked. Then a fresh horse, stronger than the other, was brought up.
This the king mounted and made another attack on William des Barres, striving to bring him down, but without success. For William stuck fast to his horse's neck despite the king's threats. Now when Robert de Breteuil, son of Robert earl of Leicester,! He was taken prisoner by Richard in , but breaking parole escaped. He afterward saved Philip Augustus' life at the battle of Bovines 27 July, 12 April, , Henry II.
Robert's father, bearing the same name, is said to have died in Romania Aug. Robert IV. The marriages of his sister and co-heir, Amicia, are noted above. Richard was giving Robert the earldom after his father. But he went off to his lord the king of France demanding his aid and counsel as regards this which had fallen out.
And on the morrow the king of France came to the king of Eng- land on behalf of William des Barres, asking for peace and mercy in humble style ; yet would not the king of England hear him. In 1 theJdng granted him the county of Nevers, together with the hand of Agnes, daughter of the late Count, Guy ob. Peter's goods suffered shipwreck in the Christmas tempest of 1 1 90, and Philip had to relieve his necessities by a present of marks.
Nearly thirty years later he put forward a claim to the imperial dignity and was crowned Emperor of Constantinople by Honorius III. He then attacked Theodoras by whom he was taken prisoner. He is said to have been dead before the end of January, 12 Earlier counts of Nevers had been ardent Crusaders, e.
Peter de Courtenay was also Count of Auxerre in right of Jiis wife. Accordingly on the third day William left Messina because the king of France would no longer keep him in his service against the will of the king of England. But some time after, when the time for crossing over drew near, the king of France with all his archbishops, bishops, counts, barons, and the chiefs of the whole army came once more to the king of England, and casting themselves at his feet begged peace and mercy for William des Barres, shewing what loss and inconvenience the absence of so valiant a knight would cause.
At last, after much difficulty, they got the king of England to consent to the peaceable return of the said William, Richard under- taking to do him no ill or harm, and not to proceed against him so long as they were both busied in the service of God. Then the king of England gave many ships to the king of France and his men ; after which he distri- buted his treasures lavishly to the whole company of knights and to the sergeants of the whole, army, till many said that none of his predecessors had given away in a year so much as he gave away in that month.
And of a surety we may believe that by this generosity he " won the favour of the Thunderer," since it has been written " God loveth a cheerful giver. But the king's mother and the king of Navarre's daughter put in at Brindisi, where the admiral Mar- garitus and other of king Tancred's men received them with all honour and reverence. The count of Flanders however came to Naples, where, finding the king of England's galleys, he went aboard, and arriving at Messina became a supporter of the king of England.
She seems to have died in the second quarter of the Xlllth century, after taking the veil in the abbey of L'Espan, which she had herself founded. Both father and sons were indefatig- able Crusaders; the former in , , 1 , ; the latter in 1 and In 1 Philip was offered the guardianship of the kingdom of Jerusalem, but refused.
He died in June, 11 90, at the siege of Acre. In explanation of his conduct, now and later on, it must be remembered that he was bound by special ties to Henry II. Nearly thirty years before both he and his father had been in this king's pay ; whilst his mother Sibylla, who was Henry II.
Lazarus at Jerusalem. See Gen. Tables 1. Now when king Tancred heard of the king of England's approach he went out to greet him with the utmost reverence, and brought him into the city with all the honour due to royal worth. As the two kings went in company to visit the blessed Agatha's tomb the clergy and people met them before the entrance of the temple, praising and blessing God, who had made them such close friends.
After prayer at the blessed Agatha's tomb the king of England entered Tancred' s palace with that king and there tarried three days and three nights. Though discarded by graver historians, such as William of Newburgh, the Arthurian stories soon worked their way deep down into the popular mind. And on the morrow when the king of England wished to be off, king Tancred handed him a certain letter which the king of France had sent him by the duke of Burgundy.
This letter declared that the king of England was a traitor, and would not keep the peace he had made with Tancred. If Tancred himself, the letter went on, would attack the king of England or set upon him by night he [i. Philip] and his men would help him to destroy the king of England and his army. To Tancred the king of England made answer : "I am not a traitor, neither have I been one nor will I be. Moreover I have not broken the peace I have made with you, nor will I do so as long as I live.
But I cannot easily believe the king of France has sent you this message con- cerning me, for he is my lord and my sworn comrade in this pilgrimage. They went by sail not by oar, and, if we may take the instance he quotes from Geoffrey of St. Pantaleon, may on an average have contained 24 men and 40 horses. They are generally identified with the Xlllth.
On the same day came the king of France to Taor- mina for an interview with Tancred and, after resting there one night, on the morrow returned to Messina. But the king of England, being wroth, made no pre- tence to pleasure or good-will, but kept on the look- out for an opportunity of departing with his men. In answer to the king of Prance's inquiries as to why he was thus treated the king of England sent him by Philip count of Flanders [a copy of all] the disclo- sures the king of Sicily had made to him ; and in proof thereof shewed him the aforesaid letters.
When this was made clear to the king of France he was struck speechless by his evil conscience, and had no word of reply. At last, coming to himself, he said, " Now I see plainly how the king of England is seeking occasion to malign me ; for all these words are forged lies.
Truly I believe he is plotting against me thus so that he may put away my sister Alice, whom he has sworn. But he may rest assured that if he discards her and marries another wife I shall be his enemy as long as I live. Moreover he brought forward many witnesses who were ready to maintain this by every method [that is were ready to prove it by a judicial oath or by a judicial combat or ordeal].
Richard's greed toward Philip. This is a French account of the transactions, and to be com- pared with the English accounts above. Rigord, 3i When king Philip came to Messina in August''' he was lodged with great honour in the palace of king Tancred, who gave him abundantly of his own pro- visions ; and would have given him a countless sum of gold if he or his son Louis would have married one of his daughters.
But king Philip, because of the friendship he had for the emperor Henry,f declined either engagement. Later on the strife between the king of England and Tancred for his sister's dowry was terminated in the following way, thanks to king Philip's intervention and efforts : — The king of England received 40, ounces of gold from king Tancred. Of this king Philip had only the third part, when he ought to have had the half. Yet for the sake of peace was he contented with the third.
The claim of his son, Henry VI. He died 28 Sept. His son was the brilliant Frederick II. Philip begs Richard to sail at once. Rigord, But the king of England replied that he could not cross before August. Then the king of France sent once more urging him as though he were his own vassal to cross the sea along with him. If he would he might marry the king of Navarre's daughter The king of England flatly refused to do anything of the kind ; upon which the king of France called on those who had given sureties for this oath to do as they had sworn.
And Geoffrey de Rancogne and the viscount of Chateaudun, in the name of all the rest, declared they would do as they had sworn and go whenever he wished it. At this the king of England was vehemently wroth and swore to disinherit them — a threat which the subsequent course of things brought about. And from this moment envy and quarrels began to rise between the two kings.
There were ordinarily reckoned two great 'flassagia' in the course of the year from the towns of the Mediterranean coast to the Holy Land. They usually took place m the early spring passagium Martii and the late summer or beginning of autumn passagium Augusti or Septembris ; but it is not very easy to assign them exact dates.
Rigord, 32, Rymer ed. This was the final arrangement between the kings before they parted. In the name of the Holy and undivided Trinity, Amen. Philip by the grace of God king of France : Know all men present and to come that a firm peace hath been made between us and our friend and faithful liege Richard, the illustrious king of Eng- land, — 1. Of a good heart and will we grant the aforesaid king to marry whomsoever he will, notwithstanding the covenant made between ourselves and him regarding our sister Alice whom he ought to have married.
If the king of England have two male heirs or more he hath willed and granted that the elder shall hold of us in chief all that he ought to hold on this side the sea of England ; ' while the other shall hold in chief one of the three baronies, to wit that of Normandy, of Anjou and Maine, or of Angouleme and Poitou. If the aforesaid terms as above written be observed on both sides, we will and grant the king of England to have and hold in peace all the tenements, both fiefs, and domain lands -that he held on the day when he started for Jerusalem Moreover the king of England hath agreed to send back to France without any let or hindrance our sister Alice, within a month after his return whether we be alive or dead.
All which things, that they may be lasting, we confirm with the authority of our seal. Given at Messina in the month of March in the year of the Incarnate Word. L 'Estoire cVEracles, Philip the king of France came straight to Syria with all his host and arrived at the harbour of Acre, where the siege was then progressing.
The gentle-folk who were already there had been long and eagerly expect- ing his coming, and on his arrival he was received with great honour as becomes so high a man as the king of France. The host was overjoyed at his coming. In his train he brought great store of vessels filled with provisions and many other good things ; and in his company he had barons and knights as befitted the crown of France : to wit, count Philip of Flanders, Hugh duke of Burgundy, and William des Barres, on whose account the discord between the two kings in great measure arose.
When he had made his survey he remarked: " It is strange that with so many warriors at the siege, the city has been so long in getting taken. The king of France might have taken the city of Acre had he wished ; but he waited for the coming of the king of England because they were companions and had made alliance from the time they left their own lands to conquer everything in common. It was for this cause that he waited — viz. March 30, And in the same month of March, Saturday the 30th, Philip with all his fleet set sail from the harbour of Messina, and on the twenty-second day following, to wit the Saturday in Easter week,f came with his army to the siege of Acre.
But the king of England and his army remained at Messina after the departure of the king of France. Rigord, however, gives the date as April 13 ; Ralph de Diceto as March Easter Day fell April 14 this year. The same year she became the wife of Henry II. She died 1st April, , at the abbey of Beaulieu, and was buried at Fontevraud. With her she brought Berengaria, the daughter of Sancho king of Navarre, whom the king of England was going to marry.
On the fourth day queen Eleanor went back to England, intending to pass through Rome ; and when she had gone the king of Navarre's daughter remained in the guardianship of the king of England, together with his sister Joan queen of Sicily. Here he was received with the greatest joy by the whole army, which had been besieging the city for so long a time.
He at once had his house set up so near the city walls that the enemies of Christ often shot their quarrels and arrows right up to it and even beyond. Then, after having erected his stone-casters, his mangonels, and his other engines of war, he so battered the walls before the king of England's arrival that it only wanted an assault for the city to be taken. For he was unwilling to storm the city so long as the king of England was away. April 10, The fleet of Richard king of the English launched forth and proceeded in the following order : — In the first line went three ships only.
One of these held the Queen of Sicily and the girl from Navarre. The other two carried part of the king's treasure and arms ; in all three there were men as a guard and food. According to Jal generally they had two rows of oars, but sometimes three, William of Tyre defines them as "[naves] maximae" in contrast with "naves majores" which the old French version renders by " huissiers " and "naves Ion gae rostratae, geminis remorum instructae ordinibus, bellicis usibus habiliores quae vulgo galecs dicuntur " Lib.
It is described as long, slender, and rather low built. In the twelfth century the galley generally had but two rows of oars. The prow was furnished with a wooden beam, called a spur calcar , with which to trans- fix an adversary. In the thirteenth century, according to Vin- cent of Beauvais, Libtirncs had occasionally three, four, and even five rows of oars. See preceding note. From this I conclude that there was not any man in the world stronger than he, either on land or sea.
Ship of the 13m Century. From a miniattire in a MS. The stormy passage of king Richard, and his faith in the Cistercian prayers. Ccesar of Heisterbach x. But the king and all the others having death before their eyes cried out all through the night : " O when will the hour come for the Grey Monks f to rise and praise God.
For I have done them such great kindnesses that I cannot doubt that as soon as they begin to pray for me God will look down and pity us. For about the eighth hour of the night, towards morning, the Lord roused by the prayers of the rising monks, and rising himself in all his might, commanded the winds and waves and there was a great calm ; so that all wondered at the sudden change.
Wherefore the king on his return, in recom- pense for this miracle, did still more honour to the order, enriching certain of its houses with alms and founding new ones. But its substance is also told of other mediaeval heroes, from Irish saints to English earls.
Earls of Chester. Richard leaves Messina, acquires Cyprus, goes thence to Acre. Manuel I. His young son Alexius was soon supplanted by his cousin Andronicus, who murdered him in , but met with a similar fate in September next year. The same writer makes him Manuel's nephew.
Hostages were delivered for the other half and Isaac was set free. He died in 1 On Good Friday April 12 , about the ninth hour of the day, a fearful wind, coming up from the S. The king with his part of the fleet took shelter in the Isle of Crete and then at Rhodes. The author of the Itinerarium shews that there were two storms on April 10 and Richard had a huge wax candle lit on board his own vessel as a sign to the rest of the fleet. He was driven to Rhodes April 22 and stayed there till May 1st.
When the storm gave over the king sent out galleys to look for the ship that held his sister and the king of Navarre's daughter. And they were found outside the harbour of Limasol. As for the two other ships, that accompanied this one as far as Limasol, they had perished ; and many knights and servants belonging to the king's suite were drowned at the same time.
Amongst these, alas! The king's seal, which he used to wear hung round his neck, was found [later]. Isaac emperor of Cyprus laid his hands upon the goods of those who were drowned ; and at the same time took and imprisoned all who escaped shipwreck, and confiscated their money. Intoxicated with a mad frenzy of cruelty, he went further, inasmuch as he would not suffer the vessel, in which were the queen of Sicily and the king of Navarre's daughter, to enter the harbour.
When this had been made known to the king of England he came to their aid, with all speed, with many galleys and a great store of ships, and found them lying outside the harbour, exposed to the winds and the sea. Being greatly enraged at this, he sent his messengers once, twice, thrice, to the emperor reached Limasol May 2nd, and was on the point of trusting her- self to Tancred's generosity three days later, when on Sunday evening May 5 two ships appeared on the horizon.
They were the leaders of Richard's fleet. These goods he desired in order that by their aid services might be offered to God for the souls of the dead. To these envoys the emperor made a haughty answer, saying that he would neither restore the pilgrims nor the goods.
Now the king, hearing that the wicked emperor would do nothing for him unless constrained by force, ordered his whole army to take up arms and follow him, saying, " Follow me and we will take vengeance for the wrongs which this perfidious emperor has done to God and to us in thus unjustly keeping our pilgrims in chains. Do not fear his men, for they are unarmed and fitted for flight rather than for war.
We, on the other hand, are well armed; for he who ' When asked for simple right says, "No," Yields all things to an armed foe. But I have confidence in God that He will this day give us the victory over this perfidious emperor and his people " May 6. Meanwhile the emperor had lined the sea-shore everywhere with his men. Few of them were armed and almost all were unskilled in battle. Yet they stood on the shore equipt with swords, lances, and clubs, and holding stakes, bits of wood, seats.
When the king of England and his men had armed themselves, leaving their great ships, they rowed ashore in boats and galleys with great speed. The archers went first to clear a way for the rest. And when they had reached land, under the king's leadership, they made an attack all together upon the emperor and his Griffons, and, as a shower upon the grass, so fell the arrows upon the combatants.
When they had been fighting a long while the emperor and his men took to flight, pursued by the king of England, who slaughtered those opposing him at the sword's edge. Many also he took alive, and had not night inter- vened maybe the king would on that day have taken the emperor himself. But as the king and his folk were on foot and did not know the mountain paths along which the emperor and his men were fleeing, they returned to Limasol and found it forsaken by the Griffons.
There they discovered abundance of corn, wine, oil, and flesh. On the same day, after the king of England's victory, his sister the queen of Sicily and the king of Navarre's daughter entered Limasol harbour ac- companied by the rest of the king's fleet. But the emperor, collecting those of his men who were scattered about the valleys and thickets, on the same night pitched his camp some five miles from the king of England's army, swearing with an oath that on the morrow he would again give battle to the king of England.
Marching along without any noise they came to the emperor's host and found it sleeping. Then with a great and terrible cry the king entered their tents, whilst the enemy, being roused from sleep, became as dead men, not knowing what to do or where to flee, because the king of England's army was setting on them like ravening wolves May 7. But the emperor with a few of his followers, escaping unarmed, left behind him his treasures, his steeds, his arms, his beautiful tents, and his imperial banner all inwrought with gold.
This the king of England despatched at once to St. Then after his great victory and triumph over his enemies he returned to Limasol. Carlyle's " Abbot Sampson" was then the head of this great foundation. Easter 1 Sibylla had previously been married to William of Mont- ferrat, the brother of Conrad of Montferrat. Baldwin IV. The feuds between Raymond III. On the death of Baldwin V. These offered their services to the king and became his men, swearing fealty to him against all folk.
On the same day the emperor of Cyprus, seeing himself utterly deserted, sent envoys humbly to the king of England, offering him peace on these terms : He Isaac would give 20, marks of gold in recompense for the money of those who Guy was taken prisoner at the battle of Hittin 4 July, n87 , but set free in the course of the next year.
He began the siege of Acre Aug. In Conrad was made king of Jerusalem and then Henry of Champagne ; while Guy had to content himself with the island of Cyprus. William of Tyre speaks very unfavourably as to his capacity. He played a distinguished part at the siege of Acre. The recalcitrant barons wished to make him king in 1 , but he escaped and did homage to Guy and his wife.
About November, , he was divorced from Isabella, who then married Conrad of Montferrat. Boamund I. He died 12 19 a. Moreover, [Isaac] promised his only daughter, who was also his heir, as a hostage ; he would deliver up his castles as pledges, would swear eternal fealty to [Richard] and his [successors], and would hold his empire of him.
When these terms had been agreed to on either side, the emperor came to the king of England, and, in presence of the king of Jerusalem, the prince of Antioch, and the other barons, became the king of England's man and swore fealty to him. Moreover, he swore that he would not leave [Richard] till all he had bargained should be accomplished.
But the king handed the emperor tents for himself and his men, assigning knights and sergeants to guard them. They formed a prominent part in the armies of the great military orders in the East. With the Templars their head officer, the Turcopolier, had command of all the men-at-arms, as well as of his own special troops, during action.
This, as it turned out, pleased the king very well. For he, like the wise and prudent man he was, at once handed over a good part of his army to king Guy? The king himself dividing his galleys into two squadrons, instructed Robert de Turnham with one half to surround the island on the one side and take whatever vessels or galleys he might find. This was accordingly done ; whilst the king with the remaining half of his galleys coasted the other part of the island.
Thus he and Robert took as many vessels and galleys as they found in the circuit of the whole island. But the guards of the cities, castles, and harbours, fleeing off to the mountains, left their charges empty in every place where the king and the aforesaid Robert came. Meanwhile the emperor's men came pouring in to the king of England, and becoming his men held their lands of him.
Now, on a certain day, when the aforesaid emperor and his comrades had sat down to breakfast, one of them said to him : " My lord, it is our advice that you make peace with the king of England, lest your whole people perish. On Sunday, May 12, the' feast of SS. The king, taking pity on her, sent her to the queen ; and, as he journeyed on, the following castles surrendered : Paphos, Buffevent, Deudeamur, and Candare. Then all the other cities and fortresses of the empire surrendered.
But meanwhile the unhappy emperor was lying hid in a certain abbey- fortress called Cape St. Andrew; and, when the king came here for the purpose of taking him, the emperor went out to meet him, cast himself at his feet, and placed himself at the king's mercy, life and limb, without making any stipulation as regards the realm. For he well knew that all things were now in the king's power, and therefore he only begged not to be put in iron fetters and manacles. It is described by Ralph of Dice to as the place " quo naves ascendunt Jerosolimam visitaturi.
On the same day, to wit on Whitsun eve, died Philip count of Flanders, at the siege of Acre ; and the king of France, laying hands on all his treasures and everything he possessed, from that hour began to seek an opportunity for withdrawing from the siege, and returning to his own lands, in order that he might reduce the county of Flanders. And on the same day, to wit Whitsun eve [i. June 6 or 7. On his death she was set free and started for Cyprus, but was detained at Marseilles and forced to marry Raymond VI.
She then became the wife of a Flemish knight, who, on the strength of his marriage, set up a claim to Cyprus and appeared before king Amalric with a demand that he should resign in his favour. The queens put out to sea in busses with their own equi- page. The king had appointed energetic men to be his wardens and captains in Cyprus, leaving them instructions to send after him what victuals were necessary, to wit wheat, barley, and the flesh of all the animals in which Cyprus abounded, And lo!
Margat was a great fortress of the knights of St. John, to whom it had been sold in by its lord, Reynald. It lies rather more than half-way from Laodicea to Tortosa. Saladin failed to take it in July, In the latter half of the Xllth century its castle belonged to the Templars. Saladin failed to take it in July, 1 It was lost to the Christians 3 Aug. It was taken by Baldwin 1. It was the chief city of the great county of Tripoli, which stretched from a little north of Beyrout to near Margat.
It was lost to the Christians 25 March, Like Tortosa it was the seat of a bishopric. Giblet the modern Jebeil between Tripoli and Beyrout is ancient Byblos— a town perhaps of earlier foundation than either Tyre or Sidon. It was the seat of the worship of Adonis. Of its strong mediaeval castle remains exist. May 13, 11 Saladin recaptured it Aug. Almaric II. Richard, who had taken note of the ship, calling up one of his galley-men, Peter des Barres, bade him row hastily and enquire who commanded it.
Word was brought back that it belonged to the 'king of France ; but Richard, as he drew near eagerly, could neither hear any French word nor see any Christian standard or banner. As it approached he began to wonder at its size, its firm and solid build. For it was set off with three masts of great height and its smoothly wrought sides were decked here and there with green or yellow hides. There was a man present on the king's ship who said he had been at Beyrout when this vessel was loaded.
He had seen her cargo sent aboard, to wit, a hundred camel-loads of arms of every kind : great heaps of arbalests, bows, spears, and arrows. It contained also seven Saracen emirs and eight hundred chosen Turks, to say nothing of a great stock of food exceeding calculation. The coloured hides in the text, however, were probably intended primarily as a protection against Greek lire, which would burn in the water, but secondarily as an ornament.
The king now sent other messengers to enquire more particularly as to who the strangers were ; and this time they received a different reply : that the strangers were men of Genoa bound for Tyre. Whilst all were in doubt as to what this contradiction could mean, one of our galleymen kept confidently affirming that the ship belonged to the Saracens.
He told the king he might cut off his head or hang him on a tree if he failed to make good his assertion by incontrovertible proof. Seeing this, its sailors began to hurl arrows and darts against the crew of the galley, as it drew up alongside of them without offering any greeting.
Noting this, Richard gave the word for an immediate onset. On either side the missiles fell like rain and the strange ship now went on at a slower rate, for the oarsmen had to slacken their efforts and there was not much wind. And yet, frequently as our galley-men made their circuits round the enemy, they could find no good wine, Persian gum, 'baked salt' sal coctum , pitch piccolo , petroleum, and common oil.
Boil these together. Then what- ever is placed therein and lighted, whether wood or iron, cannot be extinguished except with vinegar or sand. Our men, on the other hand, were grievously bestead by these darts, falling, as they did, from a vessel of such extraordinary height ; for it is no little advantage to have the blind forces of nature on one's side ; and it is much easier for a dart to do damage to things beneath it, if it is hurled from above, seeing that it falls downwards of its own accord.
For these reasons our men began to falter and relaxed their efforts, wondering what the peerless courage of the unconquered king Richard himself would deem the best course under these circumstances. But he boldly called out to his own men as follows : " What! Shame upon you! After so many triumphs will you let sloth get hold of you now and give way like cowards?
Others, pushing alongside with great skill and perseverance, grasped hold of the cordage and leapt on board. This sight- roused the other Christians to greater valour. But the Turks emboldened by despair used every effort to repel the galley-men, and succeded in cutting off a foot here, a hand or a head there ; whilst their opponents, straining every nerve, drove the Turks back to the very prow of the ship.
Upon this other Turks came rushing up from the hold of the vessel and, massed into one body with their fel- lows, offered a stout resistance, being determined to die bravely or repulse their adversaries like men. For these were the very flower of the Turkish youth — a band skilled in warlike exploits and well armed. Accordingly the galleys, after drawing back a space? By these tactics the ship was stove in at once, and, giving an inlet to the waves, began to sink ; while the Turks, to avoid going down with their vessel, leapt overboard into the sea, where they were slain or drowned.
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