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Introduction Part 1 Classified Heartbreaker Introduction Part 2 Jade In The Corner Introduction Part 3 Adagio Liberty-Adriana Tour De France Introduction Part 4 After The Lights Introduction Part 5 Jade's Past So Damned Outtake So Damned Fly Away Girls Talk Outtake Scream As I explain in what follows, collecting is a recurrent theme in a novel that frequently enumerates and describes the objects that its protagonist amasses.

Furthermore, collecting is also an activity that the novel enacts, as Silva brings together in his text a variety of literary themes and motifs in such a way that the novel becomes itself a collection of heterogeneous elements.

For that reason, De sobremesa is not only a novel that displays a thematic obsession with material culture but, in a sense, also a novel about collecting, both literal and figurative, and that, through its own performing of the act of collecting, outlines the pos- sibilities of a porous and mutable notion of selfhood that goes beyond fixed models of identity. According to the diary, his life changes unexpectedly once he en- counters Helena, a fifteen-year-old girl, whom he glimpses from a distance in a Swiss hotel.

Once he recovers, he returns to his country, disenchanted and skeptical. From a formal point of view, one may argue that the act of collecting permeates the novel, which may be read as a collage that brings together heterogeneous elements from various sources. Some parts of the novel, for instance, are written in accordance with the conventions set by a romantic tradition that praises the purity of the beloved woman.

He plans to impose free trade and to foster mining, agriculture geared toward export, and industrial development. Although at times this has been considered a flaw of the novel, this eclecticism may also be read as an enactment of the type of collection that the novel itself addresses as a topic. De sobremesa is a text that collects and juxtaposes various possibly contradictory themes and motifs in a manner that actually resembles the way the act of collecting is portrayed within the novel itself.

As a topic, collecting figures prominently in the novel. You will adorn the vestibule of my Paris hotel, you enormous Etruscan vase that boast in your bas-reliefs a beautiful proces- sion of nymphs, and above the horns of the ram that make your handles, the orchids of the tropics. He is portrayed as a womanizer, a collector of women, who registers his many conquests in his diary.

El vulgo les pone nombres a las cosas para poderlas decir y pega tiquetes a los individuos para poderlos clasificar. T hat is the label that was assigned to me in the classification. People give names to things in order to be able to say them and fixes labels on individuals to be able to classify them. However, he also calls himself a scientist, a speculator, a gourmet, and a man of the world.

He is a soldier, a geologist and a botanist, a mystic, a sybarite, an art collector, a businessman, a hacendado, and a sociologist. In the West, however, collecting has long been a strategy for the deployment of a posses- sive self, culture, and authenticity.

These items have been assembled in the room, one can surmise, because of their artistic effect and perhaps as a form of inspiration. In general, one may say that the things assembled in the room share an air of exoticism, whether in virtue of their antiquity or of their belonging to distant cultures. And that heteroclite assembly was presided by the Quechuan idol that you took from the bottom of a shrine in your latest excavation, and a Greek statuette of white marble.

Although earlier in the novel he had claimed to have abandoned his political civilizing project, which could be put into place only by force, this fragment suggests otherwise. This might indicate a lack of identification of behalf of the protagonist and of the text itself with the indigenous or, as I discuss later in more detail, a new assessment of it. A recurring narrative in Western accounts of collecting is that objects are dislo- cated and brought into contact with others according to the criteria that the collector imposes in a process that establishes a new order and endows the objects with a new meaning.

While the European collection is brought together by a Western subject that assembles objects that are deemed rare or exotic, De sobremesa problematizes such distinctions in various ways, first among them by assign- ing the role of a collector to a non-European subject. My view is that, in turning to the European theme of collecting and the collection, as well as when collecting is enacted in his texts, Silva is both quoting and reinterpreting a topic taken from the European cultural archive.

His mother, according to the novel, comes from a race of llaneros, those rebellious and savage cow- boys who fought and defeated the Spaniards during the wars of indepen- dence. It is evident that by formulating the dichotomy between the Spanish and American elements, Silva is recurring to the now well-known trope of civil- ization versus barbarism that is prominent in nineteenth-century Latin American literature, a dichotomy that, albeit formulated somewhat different- ly, has its best-known representative in the work of Faustino Sarmiento.

The cannibal, initially a trope for Latin American alterity, becomes in the twentieth century a model for hybrid iden- tities, 54 and this is prefigured in the kind of bricolage that De sobremesa exemplifies. It is undeniable that in the novel a nostalgia for that other, spiritual tendency is also expressed.

No, you cannot die. Perhaps you never existed and are only a luminous dream of my spirit; but it is a dream that is more real than that which men call Reality. And the materialization of this attitude is the collection. The Savage Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, , See, for instance, Rosemary C. Allusions to the topic of collecting abound in modernismo. This suggests to me that modernista texts can be read as collections of various styles. Silva, De sobremesa, in Obra completa, Silva, De sobremesa, in Obra completa, , emphasis in the original.

I thank the anonymous reader of the manuscript for suggesting the connection between collecting and plunder at this point in my discussion. In this novel, the Duke Jean Des Esseintes isolates himself from the world and makes his home a collection of exotic objects over which he establishes a dominion in his attempt to reject nature.

Latin America thus appears in the novel as a barbaric object that is dominated by the collector. Along with this phenomenon, the idea that good taste is a sort of knowledge gained strength The Pleasure Wars [New York: Norton, ], vol. Conse- quently, knowing how to choose objects that demonstrate good taste becomes an important task for members of the bourgeoisie as they define their identity.

As Janell Watson has pointed out, the private collection of bibelots becomes prominent in nineteenth-century Europe with the development of bourgeois culture. Although for some this may a sign that the modernistas simply identified with Europe, I do not believe it to be the case in this text.

The Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, Camacho Guizado, Eduardo. Caracas: Biblioteca Ayacucho, Gay, Peter. Breve historia del modernismo. Huysmans, Joris Karl. Introduction by Havelock Ellis. New York: Modern Library, Madrid: Iberoamericana; Frankfurt am Main: Vervuert, La Greca, Nancy.

LoDato, Rosemary C. Macpherson, Crawford B. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Valencia: Editorial Prometeo, Obra completa. Trigo, Benigno. Watson, Janell. Tablada speaks of the market-based practice of collecting and of how buying in bulk takes away from the pleasure and adventure of collecting. The economic feasibility of the postcard made it possible for anyone to become a collector, and it also provided the general public with access to central cultural figures, allowing personal texts from famed personalities into the homes of the popu- lation at large.

Postcards also tell the story of nations and their geography, archi- tecture, and ethnography. The format reveals individual choices wrapped up with visual and textual production that reflects mass culture as well as per- sonal relationships. They combine the benefits of a capitalist authority that is evident in the variety and accessibility of the postcard with an explicit sus- taining of increasingly democratic and open societies through facilitated communicative and textual practices available across social spheres.

Immersed in the social modernity of the turn of the nineteenth century, writers of the movement confronted the material realities of the expanding modernization in Latin America to enrich their revolutionary aesthetic. In addition, moder- nistas brought literature into the streets on a daily basis due to their journalis- tic production and became public figures through their official political ap- pointments and unofficial close relationships with heads of state and other political authorities.

The postcard intersects notions of public and private, a tension evident in modernismo from its inception. The postcard, however, provides additional layers of literary openness to the region. It allows consumers a choice in a vast world of postcard formats and images, and, even more importantly, it gives the public an outlet for their own poetic production and reception.

In fact, the literary during the modernista period, due to the sharp rise in journalism and serialized formats of the text, became a de facto public insti- tution. The greater part of literary production was journalistic and mass- produced in newspaper form and therefore consumed daily by an expansive reading public.

Consequently, modernista writers became celebrities in their own right and were well known and often cited and recited in the Hispanic world. This popularity resulted in a seamless modernista integration into the popular collecting and communi- cative practices that accompanied the postcard. The writers often received postcards requesting lines of poetry, they themselves often had their own postcards made with images and photographs to identify the sender, and they used the format for their personal correspondence.

Figures 5. At times, their brief correspondence took a literary turn. Here, in order for us to see natural beauty, we can resort to closing our eyes, and accomplishing in this manner, solitary repose. At this moment, Leopoldo is the humble son of work, and nothing more].

When it came to textual practices and evolving textual formats such as the newspaper, magazines, serial novels, advertising, and the postcard, the modernista movement was completely immersed. Moreover, they actively used such practices to further their influence in the literary field and expand their prestige within Spanish America and across the Atlantic. Postcards, highlighting the consternation that existed between the public and private, the lightning speed of the telegram and intellectual letter writing, a high literary institution and a revolutionalized transnational literary field, found themselves at the intersection of the transformations of the turn of the twentieth century.

The material form of the postcard, its repetitive transmis- sion, and the way that it converted writing into an accelerated practice situ- ates the medium as an innovative textual practice where the maelstrom of cultural change would meet and condense. Modernistas, due to their journa- listic careers, were experts in the incorporation of everyday trivialities into their texts.

However, modernista writers rarely treated their quotidian topics with com- plete levity and frivolity. As is the case with the postcard, modernistas recognized the impact of everyday topics and wrote extensively on the societal impact of such themes as popular dance, music, theater, fashion [both feminine and masculine], the occult, tourist destina- tions, public drunkenness, and myriad other themes.

Modernista writers, as producers of a highly revolutionary corpus of verse, were also experienced cultural critics who did not hold back in publicly expressing their views on the routine and seemingly mundane and then widely disseminating the texts in newspapers and even later publishing them in attractive book forms by prestigious editorial houses in Spanish America, Spain, and France.

Publicly coming to terms with popular practices like the postcard manifests the frag- mented character of the modernista writer and his intentional foray into the public and popular spheres referred to earlier. He explains that these post- cards come in all shapes and sizes and how he has, with pleasure, responded to the continuous solicitations. He recounts that, at times, young women will return his response asking him not to send the card in an envelope but to ensure that the postage stamp is on the postcard itself.

This particularity in postcard correspondence attests to one of its fundamental attributes: its popu- lar collectability. The collectability of the postcard accompanied their popu- larity and widespread use since the inception of the medium in Austria in Modernista literary culture did not escape this popular practice and actively participated in its dissemination. From the stereotypical and the kitsch to postcards that were produced with an aristocratic aesthetic in mind, the post- card attests to the dramatic intersection of high and low culture that is symp- tomatic of the cultural dynamic at the turn of the twentieth century.

The literary and creative qualities inherent in epistolary writing, lost in part due to the postcard, is the price paid for the expansion of the postal service and the revolutionary and efficacious post- card. La vida actual.

Contemporary life makes episto- lary correspondence impossible. But everything has its compensation, both before and after Emerson employed the term. If before one received a letter, today its fifty postcards. The emotion produced when the postman arrives is multiple].

Emer- son, in his text, explores the justice of duality inherent in humanity. In the case of postal communica- tion, the renowned and prestigious modernista clearly endorses the popular form of the postcard over the more traditional letter and, consequently, the sentimental over the intellectual, the fleeting over the unhurried and ponder- ous. The production of the postcard image and its visual aesthetic qualities also had a profound effect on the reception and transference of communica- tion.

Equating photography to lan- guage and the speech act, the poet highlights the significance of the photo to the relatively short text produced on the postcard. The object as a whole is more eloquent because of its visual component. It also adds to the creativity and level of fashion that is inherent in the communicative mode.

Second, he focuses on how the postcard has revolutionized the fashion of sentimental writing. It also shows his interest in the transforming social and communication norms as they were continually being developed at the time. In this way, the poet writes for a popular audience immersed in the new print and information technologies on the American continents. Its graphic commentaries of the most notable events will later serve as priceless docu- ments. They paint a frame of mind, humor, and an opinion of generality].

In fact, many modernista attitudes held in relation to the communication industry can be paralleled to characteristics of postcard production of the time. Las ideas no hacen familia en la mente, como antes, ni casa, ni larga vida. Ideas do not congregate in the mind like before, nor have homes, nor enduring lives.

They are born upon the backs of horses, mounted on a flash of lightning with wings. They are not born by one mind only, but by the commerce of all]. The fleeting materiality of the postcard with its industrial production apparatus that ensured its wide varia- tion and innumerable series situates the format in a modernista framework that ironically frees literary, creative, and personal expression while compli- cating that same expression due to the restrictions of the market, a market that requires continual payment, a confining space for textual production, and extratextual graphics that potentially alter or supplement textual meaning.

He then dedicates the remainder of his essay to a detailed description of the postcard varieties. The press clarified the details, and then postcard writers, inspired by journalists, provided commen- tary and illustrated in their own way the events. Upon the royal arrival a good number were already in circulation, and during their stay sales figures rose sharply. It is a phrase of Parisian camaraderie]. He views the postcard as a mover of public determination and propaganda that express- es the waves of quotidian and Parisian culture.

When is it my turn? Modernista writers convert the everyday into causes for literary and philosophical concern. The transaction between the poet and the popular opens up the modernista movement to expanded reader- ships and textual venues. This extension of the literary to the everyday actions of modernista poets helps to establish the connection between literary produc- tion and personal contact and relationships.

One example of this is the often- received request for autographs and lines of verse. My album contains the signatures of almost all great artists and famous writers in the world, but I am lacking yours that I have always desired and which, until now, I have not had the opportunity to acquire. The finest spot in my album is empty awaiting your worthy and valuable signature.

I hope that you will not leave me unsatisfied and that you will send it as soon as possible in order to satisfy the heart of your most fervent and enthusiastic admirer. Will I achieve the immense pleasure to have a thought and your autograph in one of my postcards? Will I be so lucky? The young woman expresses the pleasure and luck that would come from the response of an autograph and verse.

She also alerts the poet to his privileged place among the most renowned cultural producers of the period. Requests for auto- graphs and poetry placed modernistas at the whim of readers, and the subse- quent transference of the poetic by means of postcards openly exposed these private requests. Often overlooked in modernista criticism, the public acceptance and fame in Spanish America of modernista writers was a widespread and decades-long occurrence that resulted from public practices such as responding to autograph requests and postcard corre- spondence.

These open textual productions exposed modernista verse to a public that consumed letters on a rapidly increasing scale. Library reader- ships were higher than ever, book imports and sales expanded greatly, news- paper and magazine production in some areas of Spanish America was simi- lar to that of the United States and Great Britain, and education reforms resulted in increased literacy rates across the region.

It was also the economical nature and simplicity of the postcard format that led to this facilitated intersection between writers and their fans. Postcards and their collecting have as many motives and personal articulations as people who keep and collect them; both origin and collectability seem to intersect and are not mutually exclusive to postcard acquisition. The postcard as a site of individual subjec- tivity fits well into the mold of modernista ideology of individual creation and use.

His writings on the subject only briefly discuss the collecting aspect of the format and instead focused on the rhetoric of the images and captions of the postcards themselves and the revolution in com- munication promoted by the postcard. They all request the usual autograph. The curious pile causes me to notice the matters of the other postcards, and through them I attempt to divine the personalities of my unknown feminine interlocutors and amiable faraway friends. In these illustrated cards one finds the most varied images that hint at diverse characters and spirits.

Nevertheless, this rural passion seems to me to depict an elegant idyll of a dreamlike Trianon, of a refined hameau where pastoral marchionesses carry staffs adorned with silks and flowers. All of this is most certainly sentimental, it is very eighteenth century].

The consumption of the postcard allowed the general public to choose and adjust the imagery of the format for personal use. Postcard discourse depends on this cycle of triple production and recep- tion. First is a round of printing that is extraneous to the postcard consumer who subsequently produces a different product when he or she adds written text that is separate from the image and annotations of the original printer.

Finally, the postcard travels through the processes of the postal service, add- ing additional textual and iconographic content through adhesive and ink- based postal stamps. The receptor then possesses a discursive gift, layered with meaning and intentionalities, the original consumer playing only a par- tial role in the production of the text.

As photography was becoming more and more a part of everyday life, the post- card provided an opportunity for the general public to disseminate, collect, and individually express themselves through images. A discursive mode that was previously reserved for the elite and artistic classes, the image, in part because of modalities like the postcard, became an inexpensive, durable form of representation available to the masses.

In- stead, he shows the personal didacticism involved in postcard correspon- dence and the layers of symbolic messaging involved. Also touching on the pedagogical nature of the postcard, Geo. And it does not stop there: it is a history of art, but also a popular history, it is more attractive than fastidious lexicons; a history where empty formulas have been replaced by the very concept of beauty. The postcard is, then, a sympathetic and ideal educator.

Is this its deficiency? Perhaps, yet perfect, absolute, and complete. The format, ideal for short messages, economical for the writers who struggled material- ly, and aesthetically pleasing and creative, embodied the modernista foray and involvement into the popular cultures of the turn of the twentieth centu- ry. This connection and preoccupation reinforces a modernismo willing to be centered in popular discourse while also using the postcard genre to their advantage in forward- ing a position of prestige in the literary field of the period.

For more on the genre, see Julio Ramos, Divergent Modernities, trans. John D. Ramos, Divergent Modernities , As seen in figure 5. I am not advocating that this is further evidence of anything but a close friendship between the two poets, but it may add a bit of insight regarding their corre- spondence Amado Nervo, Postcard manuscript [n. The postcard arrived in the United States in and was in regular use throughout Spanish America in the early s.

See figure 5. There are several statistics that affirm this rise in literary audiences. For example, Adol- fo Prieto states that Argentina in had a population of over 3 million and that there were periodicals in circulation, placing the country third in the world for periodicals per capita El discurso criollista [Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana, ], Although literacy rates were higher in Argentina than other Spanish American countries, in the early twentieth century Buenos Aires had a literacy rate of 96 percent among thirteen-year-old youth ibid.

Another way of getting an idea of the extent of Spanish American readership is through the mere amount of publications at the time. Parisiana Madrid: Mundo Latino, — , vol. Emphasis added. Postcard manuscript. Courtain, Geo. Collecting Postcards in Colour: — Madrid: Mundo Latino, Postcard manuscript to Amado Nervo.

Parisiana, — Madrid: Mundo Latino, — Parisiana, 77— De Orellana, Margarita. Collecting Postcards in Colour: —, with the assistance of Valerie Monahan. Poole: Blanford Press, Emerson, Ralph Waldo. September 3, Site editor Jone Johnson Lewis.

Carta manuscrita. March 16, Madrid: Renacimiento, Madrid: Editorial Mundo Latino, Lugones, Leopoldo. Minellono, Maria. Montellano, Francisco. Nervo, Amado. Prieto, Adolfo. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana, The Lettered City. Translated by John Charles Chasteen. Ramos, Julio. Translated by John D. Reynolds, Andrew. Schor, Naomi. July 20, DRAFT Chapter Six Delmira Agustini, Gender, and the Poetics of Collecting Shelley Garrigan Subversive, subjective, exhibitionistic, masked, erotic: the captivating poetic legacy of Delmira Agustini — keeps generating critical interpreta- tions that reflect as much the complexity of her work as the changing land- scape of literary scholarship.

This point of view opens up not only a space for negotiating the seam that runs between the exterior surroundings and the private, interior self but also a way of connecting the vital, sensual experi- ence of materiality to the artistic search for a new, more profound level of literary expression. Theoretically speaking, that which distinguishes a collected object from any other is first its removal from and the complete or partial erasure of prior contexts and then its re-placement into a new code of meaning.

By demythifying and personalizing the swan as in the examples above, Agustini replaces the ritualistic, distant mode of contemplation not just of the male poet but also of the male collector. In the form of bricolage, these fragments pick up elements from Hellenic culture, from the French eighteenth century through the vision of the French Parnas- sians, from elements from symbolist and pre-Raphaelite aesthetics from the nineteenth century, and from elements of baroque aesthetics transfigured from the plastic arts.

By exploring her poetic jour- ney from the lens of collecting, a new dimension or experience of desire comes to surface. Mcpherson, goes hand in hand with the emergence of the modern subject—was nonetheless hardly unique to the late nineteenth centu- ry.

The result is a curious negotiation among the realms of self, space, and time in modernista literature. An exploration of her lyrical treatment of exquisite objects reveals a distinct engagement and reevaluation of boundaries, which can be read both as a response to the social, political, and artistic contexts from which she wrote and as a profound writerly commitment to expanding the parameters of expressive possibility from the shadows of the strong modernista legacy.

And its divine pupils were almost human and its divine lips laughed at life. All lives took root in me, All things were reflected in me! Move this body, give it a soul]. Piedad para las manos enguantadas De hielo, que no arrancan Los frutos deleitosos de la Carne Nunca ven nada por mirar tan lejos!

Piedad para las pulcras cabelleras Pity for the hands gloved with ice, that do not pick the pleasing fruits of the Flesh Pity for the eyes that flutter spiritual eyelids They never see anything for looking so far! Pity for the tidy heads of hair To feel it was to feel your heart! I, who would open your wound, bit into it—did you feel me? You seemed to hear Death pass. Am I a flower or the stock of a dark species that eats wounds and that drinks tears?

The skin that her lyrical subject penetrates here operates as language does, by covering the grotesque and intolerable substance of things and bodies in such a way that relating to it becomes possible only through its encasement. A language capable of disrupting such a precarious relationship to reality, then, can only be that which ruptures, deforms, fragments—it penetrates the surface and both reveals and releases the hidden, fecund inner stuff that lies within. Here, the sadistic thirst of the lyrical subject uses the lyrical object to turn back onto itself, to see itself as the object would see it, and then to question its own nature.

And with more soul than in Life, trembling I smiled at it like no one ever did! It was so mine when it was dead! Your head scared me. From it an unknown life flowed. It seemed. The fixation on the special object, in turn, displaces the mode of desire that is inherent to sexual drive and transposes it into the realm of play. Y te dejo morir. Y en el azur del Arte, astros humanos! Y el Destino interpuso sus dos manos heladas.

In the warm lap of blond spring They loved each other in such way that between their wise fingers the divine form of Chimera trembled. In the glimmering palaces of quiet afternoons They spoke in a language heartfelt as weeping, And they kissed each other deeply, to the point of biting their soul! The hours fluttered away like petals of gold, Then Fate interposed its two icy hands. Her lyrical subjects do not, however, remain external observers to their own spectacles.

Pour for me absinthe, honeys from his veins, from his mouth. Stretched out in this way I am a burning furrow, where the seed of another Race sublimely insane, can be nourished! The root that is nourished by the bowels of Heaven and Hell, comes to give the land the strong eternal fruit whose bloody juice is drunk by four lips!

And the enchanted arms can be four roots of a new race:. Theoretically, both Mieke Bal and Susan Stewart view collecting and writing as parallel discursive modes. Both are products of longing. The mobility, the rest- lessness, the tireless trespassing of boundaries and the complex way of si- multaneously articulating and deemphasizing the self—Other divide is a dis- position that she shares with the modernista collectors.

See chapter 4 by Andrade in this volume. Collecting, I propose, is not simply a recurrent theme in the texts of Silva and other modernistas, but rather a strategy that guides the organization of their texts. However, although collecting, both as a recurrent topic and as a strategy performed in their texts, is central to the aesthetics of modernismo, a sustained discus- sion of the topic is still lacking. Nonetheless, authors like Delmira Agustini in Uruguay, or her predecesor Mer- cedes Matamoros in Cuba, managed to express a personal poetic from within the exclusive practices of modernismo].

This proposal incorporates the perspective of vari- ous scholars on collecting, including Mieke Bal, Jean Baudrillard, and Susan Stewart. Jrade, Delmira Agustini, 26, emphasis added. For a related discussion of the question of the souvenir, see chapters 3 and 5 in this volume. Godine, Translated by Jrade, Delmira Agustini, 64— Jrade, Delmira Agustini, 40— My translation and that of Jrade, Delmira Agustini, — Translated by Jrade, Delmira Agustini, Jrade, Delmira Agustini, Jrade, Delmira Agustini, 97— Jean Baudrillard, The System of Objects, trans.

Baudrillard, System of Objects, The object, then, becomes both a charged supplement and an indication of lack for the viewing subject. Translation taken from the website PoemHunter. Stewart, On Longing, xi. Montevideo: O. Bertani, Bal, Mieke. Balmori, Stephanie E. Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations.

Paper Baudelaire, Charles, and Richard Howard. Baudrillard, Jean. The System of Objects. Translated by James Benedict. London: Verso, Bersani, Leo. Baudelaire and Freud. Betancourt, Manuel Medina. Bern: Peter Lang, Bruzelius, Margaret. Madrid: Editori- al Verbum, March 15, Madrid: Aguilar, Escaja, Tina. Am- sterdam: Rodopi, Giaudrone, Carla. Montevideo: Ediciones Trilce, Jrade, Cathy. Kirkpatrick, Gwen. Buenos Aires: Eterna Cadencia Editora, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, Morales, Carlos Javier.

Peluffo, Ana. Sartre, Jean-Paul. Norfolk, CT: New Directions, De sobremesa. Buenos Aires: Editorial Losada, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Trambaiolli, Marcella. Varas, Patricia. Montevideo: Maxilibros, Wilde, Eduardo. Wilde, Oscar. Essays and Lectures. Auckland: Floating Press, Reprint, With over 15, shells overflowing from the bookshelves and falling from tables and chairs, as well as enough books about seashells to fill his library, he boxed up his already famous collection and sent it to the University of Chile.

Neruda saw his self as multiple, split as an author, a collector—malacologist and bibliophile—as well as a donor, simultaneously a man of public and private pursuits. Juan Larrea, one of the participants, recounts that the series of homages given for Neruda in Mexico led him to think about dedicating himself to politics.

His library testifies to his status as both a reader and a collector of Whitman. Neruda was an impulsive, diligent, and obses- sive collector of everything from glass bottles and mobiles to miniature gui- tars and mastheads. La casa se puso en movimiento. De pronto, se me ocurre le- vantar del suelo el ejemplar marchito de Leaves of Grass [sic] y comienzo a examinarlo detenidamente.

II, p. When the poet told us, we all smiled; he directed us toward the book and opened it and. The thousand pesos were gone. With a feverish gesture, Pablo turned the pages, looked at the covers, searched the jacket. At the top of his voice he asked us to search the pockets of all of the suits he had worn that week.

The house was set in motion. He ran to the desk, emptied the drawers, lifted the rug. He shouted like we had never seen him do before. We suffered in silence the anguish of the poet. We wracked our brains for solutions. Suddenly, it occurred to me to pick up the forgotten copy of Leaves of Grass from the floor and I started to examine it deliberately. It was a trip through all of world literature!

With clues written in the book margins, Neruda sent his friends from volume to volume, from Dante to Milosz, from Vallejo to Dostoevsky, having hidden the money in a volume of Hans Chris- tian Andersen. This act reveals his hope for a historical change that might revolutionize labor relations by rede- fining value, even as he highlights his inevitable entanglement in his particu- lar historical moment. It is value, rather, that converts every product into a social hiero- glyphic, to get behind the secret of our own social products; for to stamp an object of utility as a value, is just as much a social product as labour.

Neruda envisions his collections as a reasonable part of his emerging communism yet does so in daring defiance of socialist norms as well as assumptions about the generally accepted relations between capital- ism and accumulation. Neruda places his collections within both a colonial heritage and an inter- national communist conviction. She could never bear her nationals to be outstanding in any way, to distinguish themselves.

I have dedicated my life to the vindication of the people, and what I have in my house, and my books, are the result of my own work. I have never exploited anyone. But this reproach is never directed against people who inherit large fortunes. They are thought to have a right to greater prosperity than others.

Just look at the way he lives. How shock- ing! Where will it stop? The inheritance passed on to Latin America by Spain, in part, he says, is one of envy. Neruda implies that Columbus was placed in chains out of envy for his perceived possession of the New World. In short, Neruda as collector finds himself in an enviable and precarious position. He must indict his critics for envy and mediocrity while distancing himself from petit bourgeois pretension.

These chains, which had and would continue to wound Latin America, included economic inequalities and exploitation, rampant cultural stereotyping, and long-stand- ing historical envies that extended into the realm of literary production and valorization.

And when pressed, Neruda details that he does not possess his possessions. A man who has nothing—it is often said—has nothing to lose but his chains. Whereas I am at every moment risking my life, my person, my possessions, my books, my house—I throw all these into the balance to defend the future and justice. Very well, then. I am not just feathering my own nest. All right, let those who reproach me do the same, or at least leave their shoes somewhere so they can be passed to somebody else!

Capitol as a relief. He negotiates between the stances of having and not having, of inheriting colonial values and inheriting wealth, and using, possessing, and giving away material culture and cultural property. In other words, Neruda proposes a reconcilia- tion at many places incomplete of personal property with communal prop- erty as well as an understanding of the ways this personal accumulation overlaps with his communism. It brings together the tendencies toward fetishism and reification in his book collect- ing with the intertextuality and rewriting exposed in his translation and col- lection practices.

It sheds light on how his material- isms, as evidenced in his collecting practices—in the explanations he gives of how his collecting tendencies develop, in his explanations of his poetic meaning, in his theories about words and materiality, and in his reliance on Marxist inheritances—form the foundations of the various aesthetic agendas in his prose and his poetry.

He quotes faithfully and famously, if partially and anonymously, in order to erase the reader reading pro captu lectoris habent sua fata libelli [the fate of books depends on the discernment of the reader] and, in the gesture of a palimpsestic erasure, in order to highlight a conception of the book as an object with an independent destiny.

His citation of Terentius Maurus dis- places the unique and original book by adding that copies of books also have their fates and plays on the reader as a determiner of that destiny in order to substitute the collector for the reader. How many cities have revealed themselves to me in the marches I undertook in the pursuit of books!

Moreover, the treasure hunt that Neruda devises reveals a much less martial trajectory even as it reveals the shadow of a communism with a much more martial trajectory but stages the pursuit of books in a way that lays bare the subtle play of difference between nuestro capital and nuestro tesoro. The book is potential property in a collection.

Throughout the essay, Benjamin details various ways that a book might transition into a collection and evidence its collectability to the individual possessor and the culture depending on acknowledgment by each housing and house ling of it. Specifically, it is an ostensible mode of and substitute for collecting.

This shift occurs even as he attempts to elevate himself to the status of a collector of merit as well as to the status of a poet of America. In this way, they too create the context of collection as a history of acquisition. From this horizon, we can appreciate how Neruda models a respectful irreverence that cuts both ways, ironizing both himself and his surveyors.

To be sure, Neruda deals with the fact that his zeal for the pursuit of personal property for his collections is seen by most to be at odds with his zeal for communist ideals. He has willed it to the people, to the Chilean Communist Party, entailing as much a creative ordering of things past as a desire in trust to the future.

Benjamin points to the possibility that the constructions of unities in cultural history which offer the appearance of progress rather than an image that might refer to the Messianic era might be laid bare and come under critique from both the most likely and the least likely of angles: from within the drive to construct an inventory and the complementary drive toward disruptive and unpredictable destruction.

In contrast, the later Neruda defi- nitely establishes his notion of history on the identification of the oppressed of Machu Picchu with the miners of northern Chile and on the unfolding destiny of communism that will liberate the pueblo. It begins to unveil what is at stake when theorizing the unity of the Americas and constructing a Literature of the Americas—a literature where more than two Americas meet and where aesthetic strategies collected from Whitman are transformed from tools used to prop up U.

It is not fit and proper. This is news to me, you may say. It is not news at all. Experts will bear me out when I say that it is the oldest thing in the world. His books come to mean both more and less than the richness of the texts housed between the covers. As material objects that are part of a collection, they both do and do not fall in line with the bourgeois habits that Neruda eschews. Not that they come alive in him; it is he who lives in them.

If I do this by elaborating on the various ways of acquiring books, this is something entirely arbitrary. This or any other procedure is merely a dam against the spring tide of memories which surges toward any collector as he contemplates his possessions. More than that: the chance, the fate, that suffuse the past before my eyes are conspicuously present in the accustomed confusion of these books.

For what else is this collection but a disorder to which habit has accommodated itself to such an extent that it can appear as order? Therein, we again see a communist poet whose politics, poetic praxis, and zeal for collection often produce contradictory impulses.

Most importantly, perhaps, we see what is to be gained. Have you raised your eyes through the tortuous steps? They were the glory of the race of rangers, Matchless with horse, rifle, song, supper, courtship, Large turbulent, generous, generous, handsome, proud, and affectionate, Bearded, sunburnt, drest in the free costume of hunters, Not a single one over thirty years of age. Under the protection of these let the peace treaty which embraces the best part of the citizens, though they dare not speak as matters stand now establish a government, whose efficiency and permanency shall be guaranteed by the United States.

This will bring out enterprise, open the way for manufacturers and commerce, into which the immense dead capital of the country will find its way, as soon as its owners can be assured it will be free from seizure and forced loans. Agriculture will develop the natural resources of the country, really one of the finest in the world, after all; and the increase of products and of trade will react in the increase of enterprise and of an active and business population from abroad.

Then at the end of this will come an increase of printing presses, papers, books, education and general intelligence, and lastly, the happiness of the masses now so sunk in ignorance and supersti- tion. We can ask things. If we see these pieces together, what can we say about geography? What can we say about the literary individuals who live there? Do we make things when we make things up? Do we make ourselves, or do we see ourselves?

How much can we call this collecting? Can we say that someone or some group owns these traditions? What is right when people claim power by keeping things to themselves or displaying them for others? And I think this is one of the things Neruda embodies: the subtleties and pitfalls of human efforts to order.

We are impelled, and we stumble, and we triumph—all at once, though it may tend one way or another. One would not imagine the things collected in that basement. We have thunder eggs and human remains. We have dolls, taxidermy, and tiny guns. How would one begin to write about that? They theorize, they create literature, they create lists and files—all to approximate what this gathering could mean. I can say that I am grateful to be a small part of seeing and voicing our collective efforts.

Neruda, Confieso, Pablo Neruda, Obras completas, ed. Hernan Loyola Barcelona: Galaxia Gutenberg, , Pablo Neruda, Canto general, trans. Wilberto L. Robert C. Tucker, 2nd ed. New York: Norton, , Knopf, , 28— The original interviews remain unpublished at this time. Neruda and Vallejo, ed. Robert Bly, trans. Translation thinking is always concerned with the reconstruction of processes, and therefore constitutes a form of dynamic rather than static interpretation.

Thus, translation and translation research function as an organizing principle that refocuses the interpretation of a text from a content-oriented to a process-oriented way of seeing texts and situations. Disciplines have had a tendency to separate subject matters that by their very nature are intricately connected. The reconstruction of the translation process reaffirms that interconnectedness, since the problem- solving character of translation forces the translator to include a variety of disciplines and interdisciplines to respond to the specific needs of a text which make a translation possible.

Schidlowsky, Las furias y las penas, — Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass, ed. Sculley Bradley and Harold W. Blodgett New York: Norton, , Pablo Neruda, Repertorio americano Sep- tember : Neruda, Obras completas, — Neruda, Canto general, — Neruda, Obras completas, Neruda, Canto general, , translation modified. Yurkievich, Suma critica, Walt Whitman, The Gathering of Forces, ed. Cleveland Rodgers and John Black. New York: G. Mexico City: Ediciones Studium, Arendt, Hannah.

New York: Schocken Books, Illuminations: Essays and Reflection. Edited by Hannah Arendt. Translated by Harry Zohn. New York: Schock- en Books, Bly, Robert, ed. Neruda and Vallejo: Selected Poems. Boston: Beacon Press, Mexico City: Imprenta Universitaria, New York: Alfred A.

Knopf, Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. The Marx-Engels Reader. Edited by Robert C. Neruda, Pablo. Canto general. Translated by Jack Schmitt. Confieso que he vivido: Memorias. Barcelona: Editorial Seix Barral, Obras completas. Barcelona: Galaxia Guten- berg, Schidlowsky, David. Las furias y las penas: Una biografia de Pablo Neruda — Berlin: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Schulte, Rainer, and John Biguenet. Whitman, Walt. The Gathering of Forces.

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