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These cookies help provide information on metrics the number of visitors, bounce rate, traffic source, etc. Advertisement Advertisement. Advertisement cookies are used to provide visitors with relevant ads and marketing campaigns. These cookies track visitors across websites and collect information to provide customized ads. Others Others. The 4th of July was the day then opening upon us. One celebration of the day was enough we thought and we held no more celebrations of the 4th of July that year.

Within two years Lewis had joined the students. Leutze, who has very kindly offered to instruct me without charge," he told George in the spring of He has also 5 other pupils working under him, so together we make a merry company. Early in , however, Leutze left for America, "having given into my charge," wrote Henry, "his beautiful studio and garden, with the privilege of using what I like for myself and renting the rest.

It consists of one very large atelier and two smaller ones, with an antiroom [ sic ], and a fine hot house. When Henry Lewis asked Maria Jones to be his wife in August, , he hoped to collect from Hermens the money still owed on his panorama -- a sum that, wisely invested, would produce almost enough in interest to live on.

As the months stretched into years, and the debt remained unpaid, the possibility of marriage became more and more remote. Then came Leutze's offer, giving the couple the opportunity of living in luxurious surroundings, rent free. Sometime during the summer or autumn of , Henry and Maria or Marie, as she was usually known , were married, and by December they were comfortably settled in Leutze's house.

It was in Hermens' home, where Marie was employed as an English governess, that Henry met his wife. Upon announcing their engagement, he described her for George in one of those vivid word portraits that are sprinkled through his letters. Her face is a long oval[,] the features tolerably regular but not what would be call'd pretty; excepting the eyes which are dark and lustrous and deep hazel.

Her hair is dark and she always wears it in curls in the english fashion. In fact she has all the outward marks both in dress, walk, and manner, of the English lady. She was born in London [,] is now no longer what the world calls young. I do not know her exact age, but I should say about These things in women are mighty uncertain.

The marriage, though childless, proved to be a very happy one, and it seemed to mark a turn for the better in the artist's fortunes. After a comfortable honeymoon in Leutze's house. Henry and Marie were ready to strike out on their own. It was her idea to take a house of some size, furnish it, and rent rooms, and in this way they succeeded not only in paying their own rent, but in providing for many other expenses.

Henry had time to paint, while Marie took charge of the house and their tenants. The artist's letters to his brother reflect his contentment, as well as his reluctance to consider returning to St. Louis, as George often suggested. And a year later he declared: "My life glides on in such [a] quiet.

Eventually, probably about , the Lewises moved into the residence at 26 Alexanderstrasse in which they were to spend the remainder of their days. Almost ten years later. The couple continued to take in boarders, and in December, , Henry reported to George that "My home has been more than full all the winter, I having now four persons living with me besides my sister in law.

And yet such is the industry and managing qualities of my good Wife," added Henry, "that I only have one servant, altho' I have 14 rooms occupied in my house, and eight fires to keep going every day. Perhaps Leutze's instruction was of benefit to them, but to Lewis it may have proved a hindrance. His style, which was marked by a certain fresh liveliness in his Mississippi sketches and lithographs and early works in oil like his views of St.

Louis, the Falls of St. Anthony, and the St. Louis, and when it will be fashionable to have one of my pictures. To augment his income from picture sales, Lewis went into the art exhibition business, on one occasion displaying, for a New York dealer, Karl Friedrich Lessing's enormous canvas depicting the "Martyrdom of Huss.

Not only did Lewis fail to sell his pictures in. At the same time Lewis was encountering another obstacle in the path to success as an artist -- a drastic change in style and public taste. Grand subjects are no more the rage. Alpine scenery once so popular now finds few purchasers. Lewis complained that they "paint mostly rainy, gloomy weather -- with a flat low horison [ sic ] and a sloppy piece of country road, with a long vista of naked poplars -- and a figure or two as miserable as the landscape.

And so," he revealed, "I have had to change my style and am now trying to do something in the same way, altho' I am loath to leave the sunny mountain ranges, with the trout stream in the valley, that I delight in. Vesey, the American consul at Aix-la-Chapelle. I have been enabled, from my long residence here, to afford them valuable aid. The artist's fees as consular agent usually amounted to about a thousand dollars a year -- a substantial addition to his meager income.

Since William D. Wamer, who received the appointment as agent, resided in Cologne, he asked that Lewis, with his background of long experience in the consular agency, be named vice and deputy commercial agent. The appointment was made, and at least one report prepared by Lewis in his new official capacity survives. But the artist was dissatisfied with the arrangement under which he was obliged to divide his fees with a superior who lived elsewhere.

In his attitude toward and his relations with Wamer, Lewis demonstrated a lack of diplomacy that eventually led the commercial agent to ask for his deputy's removal, since, wrote Wamer, "I can place no further confidence in him. Dwight J. Partello was appointed to the post in December, On one. While Lewis was enjoying the comparative prosperity provided by the consular agency, he made his one visit to his family in the United States.

Although he often mentioned a desire to take Marie on such a journey, he went alone in the autumn of , stopping with members of the numerous Lewis clan in Victor, Iowa, where George then resided, St. Louis, and New York. Henry's visit must have been brief, for after his departure George complained that it "seems more like a dream than reality, it was so short and hurried and his mind was so much taken with his business affairs [rather] than lots of things I would have liked to speak about.

The visitor from Germany found that St. Louis had "grown beyond all recognition" in his long absence. Few of his old friends and relatives remained there, and the community paid little attention to the return of the once famed panorama painter. It is evident that he was not considered newsworthy, for there is only one brief interview in a local weekly to record his visit.

In New York, Minnie remained as the guest of her elder sister, Emily Koehler, while her uncle took passage on the "City of Chester," a "fine ship," with "every provision for the comfort of travelers that money can secure. Lewis spent his declining years in the house at 26 Alexanderstrasse, living in modest comfort and surrounded by devoted friends. Even after his connection with the consulate was terminated, his home seems to have continued to be a gathering place for artists and their patrons.

Marie died on March 14, , and thereafter her sister Augusta, who had long lived with the couple, became the artist's housekeeper. She "has been a perfect treasure to me since. His income during the last years of his life, though modest, included a "life annuity," which he considered "sufficient for my actual needs. I cannot say how much, but my house. Gallery, Library, and Furniture, ought to realize a good sum, if properly managed by my executors.

Louis, for distribution among members of the Lewis family. Fortunately, most of the heirs carefully saved these mementos of their uncle's career or placed them in art and historical collections. But some items that might well have thrown light on aspects of the artist's career received less favorable treatment.

For example, Alexander's son, Mr. John G. Lewis, recalls that in his boyhood after his uncle's effects were received, he "was given a book with a large number of pencil sketches in it to use as a colouring book," and he believes he "made short work of it. Henry Lewis and his work are more widely known, however, in the United States, and especially in the great valley he chose to picture and describe.

Even before his death, St. Paul and Minneapolis newspapers were printing accounts of his career; an obituary appeared in the American Art Annual for ; the artist's life is reviewed in the introduction to the edition of Das illustrirte Mississippithal ; his panorama was the subject of an article by the librarian of the State Historical Society of Missouri in ; and the journal recording the Upper Mississippi canoe voyage of was published by the Minnesota Historical Society in Among narratives centering on Lewis to appear in print more recently, the most informative is in Mr.

McDermott's book on Mississippi panoramas. Many of Lewis' letters, sketchbooks,. It is, however, for his Mississippi reader, with its vivid portrayals of the great valley in words and pictures, that Henry Lewis is best remembered.

Drawing upon the foremost authorities of his day, he assembled within the covers of a single volume descriptions of the geographic features, the cities and the villages, along the mammoth stream's course between the Falls of St. Anthony and the Gulf of Mexico, as well as reports of the "manners, habits and customs of the numerous Indian tribes still found upon its upper waters.

After the lapse of more than a hundred years, this unique work is here presented for the first time in a complete English edition based upon the German translation of They have been selected in order to show at one glance the great variation of scenery on this magnificent river, which climate and latitude as well as the ever working and fresh creating hand of civilization produce. The reader can therefore judge of the general scope and intention of the author, both as regards the execution of the views and the size and contents of the work.

With the second number, beginning at the Falls of St. Anthony the head of navigation , the illustrations will follow each other in regular succession to the mouth of the Mississippi, where it empties into the Gulf of Mexico, so as to form one continued panorama of this mighty stream for a distance of 2, English miles, the variety and beauty of whose scenery is not to be equaled by any river on the globe.

It is also the intention of the author to render each single number, as far as practicable, complete in itself, with regard to the history and geography of that particular region. To satisfy everyone concerning the truthful execution of these drawings from nature, the annexed "Testimonials" are given from the late president of the United States, Gen. Z [achary] Taylor, and the Members of Congress residing on the shores of the Mississippi, also of Gov. So that in presenting this work to the public, the author hopes.

By invitation of the gentlemanly proprietor of the above magnificent work of art, the undersigned had the gratification of viewing it at a private exhibition. To those of us who are familiar with the Mississippi River, the illusion was so perfect, that we could hardly divest ourselves of the idea, that we were actually passing along its waters. We recognized the locations as readily as if the reality was before us; all the different cities, towns and plantations were there, with countless other things and places, as familiar to us as our own dwellings, or the houses of our childhood.

As a work of art, this panorama is not surpassed, if equaled, by any that have ever been exhibited in the country. It is every way worthy of the fame it has acquired wherever it has been shown. The full and lucid verbal explanations accompanying its exhibitions by Mr. Lewis, its proprietor, are, in themselves, very interesting, and worthy of being listened to as a historical lecture on the Mississippi, were there nothing further to attract attention.

Lewis is the accomplished artist who made all the sketches of which the panorama is composed, and placed them on the canvas. We assure the citizens of Washington, that they cannot pass an evening more instructively, than by paying a visit to this truthful and beautiful work of an American artist. Taylor, President of the United States. Ja[me]s Duane Doty, Governor of Wisconsin. W[illiam K. Stephen A. Douglas, Senator from Illinois. J[acob] Thompson, of Mississippi.

Ja[me]s S. Green, W[illard] P. Hall, J[oh]n S. Phelps, Ja[me]s B. Bowlin, of Missouri. W[illiam] H. Bissell, J[oh]n A. McClernand, of Illinois. W[illiam] S. Ashe, of North Carolina. John Wentworth, of Illinois. H[enry] H. Sibley, delegate from Minnesota. S[eth] Eastman, U.

B[enjamin] B. French, Esq. Allow me to express to you the great pleasure I have received from the exhibition of your Panorama of the Mississippi River. You have succeeded in transferring to the canvas some of the most beautiful scenery in the United States, and with a wonderful accuracy.

To my eye a more faithful sketch cannot be given of the hills and bluffs, prairies and woodland, and the deep gorge through which this stream runs. I immediately recognized many of the points with which I have been familiar for nearly thirty years past. Prairie du Chien, with its fort and Canadian hamlets and new town, and its bluffs marked by regular lines of white sandstone, is a beautiful picture, and, from the early history of the place, one of great interest.

I cannot but offer you my thanks, as an early settler of Wisconsin, well acquainted with the scenery you represent, for the great service you have rendered our country, as well as the public, by this painting, which I am well aware could only have been executed with great labor and expense. I hope you may be, as you deserve, amply rewarded for your enterprise. With much respect,. This is to certify, that we have visited Mr. Lewis' Panorama of the Mississippi River, and take pleasure in stating that we consider it an accurate representation of the various towns and cities on its banks, and the character of its shores and islands.

As a work of art, we consider it superior to any panorama of this subject we have ever seen, and we cordially recommend it to the patronage of the public. Captains: J[oseph] Throckmorton. Ja[me]s E. Leroy Dodge. D[aniel] S[mith] Harris. Hiram Bersie. It is miles above the mouth of the Ohio and 15 miles below that of the Missouri; so the Upper and Lower Mississippi, the Missouri, the Ohio, and the countless other smaller streams are all more or less tributary to St.

Louis, pouring the wealth of these immense regions into her lap. The present population is about ,, while in it was scarcely 30, As the early history and settlement of this town are exceedingly interesting, the subjoined condensed account is given from the best authorities. Thus commissioned, the company lost no time in fitting out an expedition, well supplied with all the necessary. Laclede, the principal projector of the company and withal a man of great intelligence and enterprise, was placed in charge of the expedition.

Leaving New Orleans on August 3, , he arrived at Ste. Genevieve three months afterward, namely on November 3. But when Mr. Laclede arrived in the country, Louis XV had already signed the everlastingly shameful treaty of peace by which was most inconsiderately ceded to Great Britain one of the finest regions on the habitable globe, the possession of which had been obtained after nearly a century of efforts and discoveries, and at the sacrifice of much blood and money.

This portion of country, embracing what are now the two Canadas, the immense watery expanse of the northern lakes, and the fertile regions of Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and East Louisiana, to the Gulf of Mexico, passed under the dominion of Great Britain. Laclede, greatly embarrassed under the new aspect of things, found himself, however, relieved when the commanding officer at Fort Chartres, Mons.

Neyon de Villiers, allowed him the use of the stores at the fort until the final surrender of the place. Laclede gladly accepted the offer, and lost no time in apportioning his squad and distributing his flotilla along the river, so as to render them most effective either for defense or for trade.

Laclede, therefore, left Fort Chartres on a voyage of exploration to the junction of the Missouri with the Mississippi, and it was not long before he discovered that the bluff upon which St. Louis now stands was the spot that would best answer the purposes of the company. Louis, it may be remarked in this place that the hill upon which the city is situated is composed of limestone rocks, covered by a deep deposit of alluvial soil of great fertility. The limestone bluff rises to an elevation of about eighty feet over the usual recession of the waters of the Mississippi, and is crowned by an upland, or plateau, extending to the north and west, and presenting scarcely any limit to the foundation of a city entirely secure from the invasions of the river.

It was on this spot that the prescient. Laclede could do no more than cut down some trees, and blaze others, to indicate the place which he had selected. Returning afterward to Fort Chartres, where he spent the winter, he occupied himself in making every preparation for the establishment of the new colony. Accordingly, at the breaking up of winter, he equipped a large boat, which he manned with thirty hands. Auguste Chouteau, who had accompanied Mr.

Laclede on his first excursion, was directed to carry out his plans, and on February 15, , had arrived at his point of destination with all his men, whom he immediately set to work. The present old market place of St. Louis is the spot where the first tents and log cabins were erected upon the site of this important city of the West.

The remnants of the Missouri tribe of Indians, who occupied an extensive prairie upon the west bank of the river of the same name, suddenly made their appearance before St. Louis, numbering in all more than four hundred individuals, men, women, and children, and counting upward of one hundred warriors.

Although they did not present themselves in hostile array, still they became troublesome by their importunate demands for provision and their more vexatious pilferings. Unable to foresee what would be the result of this unexpected visit, the colonists of Illinois, who, abandoning the British dominion, had nocked to join those of St.

Louis, took the alarm and recrossed the Mississippi. Auguste Chouteau then found himself reduced to his original company of thirty or thirty-five men, one of whom he dispatched as a messenger to Mr. Laclede, who was still tarrying at Fort Chartres.

Laclede arrived; and the result of his negotiation with the Indians proved that he had a great knowledge of the Indian character and possessed much tact in managing it. We know of no better place than where we are. We mean to build our wigwams around your village. We shall be your children and you will be our father. Laclede acceded liberally to this prayer, and the day following the next the unfortunate remnants of the Missouri nation ascended the river of their fathers, and returned to their village.

Lands were allotted to them, which they set about tilling, and upon which they built their cabins. Yet, it was not until August 11, , that the Spanish troops took possession of St. Louis been destined to remain an Indian trading post, her history might have been told in a few lines. Louis, died in the village called the Post des Arkansas on Arkansas River. Laclede had continued to reside in St. Louis in a house situated in what is now Main Street, between Market and Walnut streets, and opposite the old market square; his house became after his death the property of the late Col.

Chouteau, who enlarged it, adorned the premises with a fine garden, and created that splendid mansion till lately admired by strangers, as well as by the inhabitants of the city. It was pulled down in the month of October, , and might be regretted, did it not make room for more modern buildings, better suited to the commercial extension of the city.

On this occasion the following beautiful poem was written and published in a newspaper of the day by the late M[atthew] C. Louis was attacked by a party of Indians and British, who had been ordered to take possession of the towns on the west side of the Mississippi in consequence of the part which Spain had taken in favor of the independence of the United States.

The French, who had preserved a good understanding with all the Indian nations, very little expected this blow, and were not prepared to resist it. However they succeeded in repulsing the enemies, who threw themselves upon those of the inhabitants that, engaged in the cultivation of their fields, had not had time to reach the palisades, and, with characteristic ferocity killed sixty of them and made thirteen prisoners. Louis, and at some narrow points of the river as high as thirty feet.

The whole region of country drained by the Mississippi to its mouth presented the aspect. Louis and New Orleans, having been frequently attacked and plundered of their merchandise by bands of Mississippi pirates headed by Culbert and Margillivray, who used to lie in wait for them at the mouth of the Riviere au liaras Cottonwood Creek , the governor of New Orleans took measures against them, and ordered ten large boats to be equipped.

They succeeded in breaking up the haunt of the pirates, and returned in triumph to St. Louis learned that Spain had retroceded Louisiana to Napoleon, and that the latter had sold it to the United States.

Their existence had become, as it were, so isolated and simplified that they had lost sight of the advantages of a social compact, which, whilst it imposes salutary restraints, invites emulation and stimulates ambition. There were no public schools in the colony; no regular church, as it was but rarely that the villages were visited by some venerable missionaries, whose number was very small, considering the vast extent of the country.

All the purposes of life were embraced within the domestic circle, where virtue, religious faith, and strict honesty were proverbial. Notaries public, lawyers, judges, and tribunals were unknown. There was no other prison than the guardhouse of the small Spanish garrison; and it is asserted that, during upward of thirty years, there was not a solitary instance of civil delinquency, or of crime.

Bargains were sealed by a grasp of the hand, and the currency of the country consisted of deerskins, furs, and other peltries. The French descendants of the present day still retain numerous anecdotes of their ancestors that graphically describe the unsophisticated nature of the Missourians; among which we may be permitted to select one.

The dealer was a Kentucky merchant, who, on observing him, asked if he wished to purchase anything. The treaty having been finally ratified on April 30, , Captain Amos Stoddart took possession of the country, which the Spanish troops evacuated on November 3, In it was admitted into the Union as the state of Missouri, and its constitution sanctioned by Congress in Up to this time, St.

Louis remained little more than an Indian trading post, with a population consisting mainly of adventurers, such as miners, trappers, hunters, etc. This event took place in [], when the "Gen. Louis, having accomplished the voyage from New Orleans -- a distance of 1, miles, against the current -- in eighteen and a half days. It is stated that Mr. Laclede in took three months to come from New Orleans to Ste.

Louis for New Orleans warranted to be back in seven months," whereas it is not an uncommon thing now, for large steamboats, to reach St. Louis in five or six days. Such tacts say more than the most eloquent pen could describe. There are now about four hundred steamers plying between the ports above and below St.

Louis, on the Upper and Lower Mississippi and its tributaries. Having so far given the most remarkable events of the early history of St. Louis up to this present day, we will now proceed to describe the aspect of this glorious city of the West, as represented in the adjoining illustration [Plate 1]. Louis is here seen as it appeared after the great fire, which took place on the night of May 17, , and proved one of the most destructive conflagrations that ever occurred in America.

Six hundred and forty houses and twenty-eight steamboats were swallowed up by the devouring element in one night. And yet such was the energy displayed by the inhabitants, and such the demand for buildings to replace those which had been burnt, that in eighteen months scarcely a vestige of the fire was to be seen.

In a following number a vivid illustration [Plate 62]. The city at this present time is one of the most flourishing in America and is very aptly termed the Queen City. The present population is nearly , inhabitants, of whom 30, are Germans, 4, French -- and about 5, of other foreign nations.

The balance consists of Americans. Ten daily newspapers are printed here, and seven weekly and triweekly journals. The numerous churches and public buildings would do credit to any city in the Old or New World. The principal buildings seen in the illustration -- commencing on the left-hand side -- are the Catholic Cathedral, the first Presbyterian Church, the Courthouse with its great dome, the Episcopalian Church, the Planter's Hotel, which can accommodate two hundred guests, the Unitarian Church, the theater with the flag on the roof, the Methodist Church, St.

In the upper part of the view appear the chimneys of the various foundries and engine manufactories and the tall shot tower of Mr. F[erdinand] Kennett -- the most extensive and complete establishment of the kind in the world. A little farther to the right is seen the old Indian mound, of which many are found in the. The Landing of St.

Louis presents at all times a scene of great bustle and animation, but particularly in the spring and autumn, when the rich products of the Upper Mississippi are landed from a hundred steamboats. One of the principal causes of the prosperity of St. Louis is the fact that all the large steamboats plying between New Orleans and St.

Louis never go above this city, while all the smaller boats, connected with the upper river trade, rarely go below, so that St. Louis becomes the great point of transshipment between the two vast regions watered by this mighty stream and its tributaries. The forwarding and commission business forms one of the most lucrative and extensive that is followed here.

The point of the island on the right is known by the ominous name of "Bloody Island" -- so called from the numerous duels that used to be fought upon its sandy shores. This practice of showing your love for a friend by making a hole through his body with a bullet, was once fashionable in St.

Louis; but the progress of civilization -- and common sense -- has happily done away with that " good old custom. The object sought for particularly in a steamboat of this class is light draft, speed, and capability for carrying freight. The boats are therefore built with a perfectly flat bottom without keel and very sharp at the bow. The hold in the largest class of boats is rarely more than six feet deep and the engine and boilers are placed on the deck, and not in the hold of the vessel as is usually the practice.

The boilers vary in number from two to eight according to the size of the vessel and are placed side by side forward, the mouths of the fireplaces being just under the chimneys. The engines, of which there are usually two, are back of the boilers. These are always horizontal high-pressure engines, as it has been found that none other will answer owing to the immense amount of sediment found in the waters of the Mississippi, and which directly cuts to pieces the peculiarly constructed valves of the low-pressure engines.

Back of the engines is the place called the deck, where all that class travels who cannot afford to go in the cabin. It is a wretched place, usually crowded to such excess that there is not room for a fourth to sleep at a time, and in case of accident these poor emigrants and deck passengers are commonly the principal sufferers. The boats on the Mississippi all burn wood, and such are the immense quantities destroyed in this manner that, had not nature provided an inexhaustible supply, some other fuel would have had long since to take its place.

The deck hands are always employed to assist in the operation. The ladies and gentlemen's cabin extends the whole length of the boat, over the boilers and machinery, and there are no steamboats in the world which supply such comfortable accommodations and such good fare as those on the Mississippi. The whole of each side of the boat is occupied by the staterooms as the sleeping apartments are called.

These rooms accommodate two persons each and, although not large, are exceedingly convenient. There are two doors to each room, one opening to a sort of veranda that runs round the boat and the other to the cabin, so that on a warm summer's day you can sit in your stateroom and see and hear everything that is going on in the cabin, at the same time watching the rapid and ever-varying panorama as you rapidly pass the shore.

The prices of traveling here in the cabin are very low considering the accommodations the traveler enjoys. From New Orleans to St. For this you receive your stateroom, three meals a day, all attention -- and no servants or stewards to be feed -- a practice the Americans do not believe in, and if any servant either in a hotel or steam-boat is ever known to have asked for money, he is immediately discharged.

The upper deck of the boat or, as it is called, the hurricane deck, is the general promenade for the cabin passengers; no spot can offer more inducements after the heat of the day, and during a fine moonlight night, especially to the smoker and the lover; for many a delicate Havana has there wasted its fragrance on the desert air, and many a young heart has yielded itself up -- a willing captive -- to the tender influence.

The high tower-like building between the chimneys is the pilothouse, elevated in this manner so that the person steering can see ahead and detect the breaks and ripples in the water that indicate the presence of the dangerous snags, sawyers, and other impediments. The rooms underneath are occupied as sleeping rooms for the pilots and engineers, and the high pole fixed on the bow of the boat with the large black ball is for the pilot to take the range of objects ahead.

The time occupied in making the voyage from New Orleans to St. Louis is, at a good stage of water, about four and a half days, and if the water is low the boat has to run slower. From St. Louis to the Falls of St. Anthony, 1, miles, the time taken is usually six days; at low water eight or ten, owing to delay at the rapids, where the boat has to take out a great part of her cargo to lighten her.

The price charged is from six to eight dollars. The largest and finest. The illustration [Plate 2] represents one of the largest New Orleans boats wooding at night -- a singularly wild and striking scene, which shows the character of the country below the mouth of Red River, where the Spanish moss, as it is called, is hanging in immense festoons from the trees, giving to the landscape a solemn and funeral-like appearance.

It is about one mile in circumference, and the ascent to the summit of Mount Trempe, or Mount Trompolo, as it is familiarly known, is exceedingly difficult. But the scene from the summit richly repays the explorer. As far as the eye can reach, to the north and south, the Mississippi is perceived winding among its thousand emerald islands, while on the east and west, prairie after prairie, forest on forest, hilltop on hilltop, sweep off in grand magnificence into the limitless horizon.

The summit of the mountain is a narrow ridge but a few yards wide, but extends about yards north and south. On the west is a precipice, on the east an abrupt wooded slope, on the summit is not "a lake of fine fish ," as tradition has delighted falsely to say, and some have fondly believed. Rattlesnake bites are the only bites that an enterprising disciple of old Izaak is likely to obtain there. The reptile abounds among these rocks. By the Indians of the present day, it is called " Mi-ri-nay chon-ke-hah ," or "Bluff in the Water," and, as a Manito, it is resorted to with offerings at the opening of the wild geese season each year, in order to propitiate the Wakan for success in the hunt.

Opposite Mount Trompolo is another hill several hundred feet high. Tradition says that an old Indian, who had resolved never to leave his native home, one day ascended to the summit of this hill with his pipe and rifle for the Indians are great smokers and some days afterward on being missed, was there found dead.

There are several other prominent cliffs in this group as: "Catlin's Rock," "Lewis Bluff," and "Solitaire Peak," the latter two called after the author of these prints and his companion. This illustration [Plate 3] gives a good idea of the appearance of these curious hills -- Mount Trompolo in the distance -- and in the same view is a representation of a deputation of Dakota Indians on their way to sign a treaty with the pale faces, from a sketch by Major S.

Eastman, U. This beautiful ceremony is one very rarely witnessed. When the chiefs arrive near the spot where the treaty is to be signed, they draw their canoes up in a line and fasten them together. The orator of the tribe then arises and makes a long speech to them, stating the objects and conditions of the treaty; a final vote is then taken, and if agreeable to all, the treaty is signed, if not, they return to their villages and have another great talk.

In the one boat may be seen the flag of the United States, showing that they are treating with that government, and in the other, their own curious national standard made by fastening the tail feathers of the war eagle round a crooked stick. These feathers are worn by the Indians as marks of great deeds performed, and no Indian is allowed to wear one of them in his headdress until after he has killed an enemy in battle -- and for every one so slain, an additional feather is allowed.

It is from contributions of these feathers given by the most eminent chiefs of the tribe that the great national standard is formed. In looking at the headdress of an Indian therefore, not only his success as a warrior can be told, but on the white portion of each feather is given a sort of hieroglyphical history of each particular encounter.

For instance: Should. The two Indians on the sand bar belong to the Chippewa tribe; all the Indian nations differ from each other in the way of dressing, especially so in the shape of their moccasins; also their boats are differently constructed, and the Chippewa particularly can be recognized by the light and graceful form of their canoes, made out of birch bark; while the Dakota always use the wooden canoe, or "dugout," made from a single tree. The Chippewa, before arriving at their place of destination, leap on shore ere the boat touches the ground, and, taking it carefully up, turn it over on the sand, so as not to injure the bottom.

These bark boats are so light that a canoe, that will carry conveniently eight men, can be transported on the head of a single Indian. Peter's [ Minnesota River ]. This bluff consists of three different formations: the first of limestone abounding with organic remains, a second of sandstone, and the third of limestone without organic remains.

Looking to the right of the fort, we behold a continuation of the valley of the Mississippi, whilst to the left begins that of the St. At our feet, directly in front, to the east, lies a small island, shaped like a triangle. This island was originally covered with timber, but it is now nearly cleared so as to afford no cover to an enemy approaching the fort.

It seems to be a continuation of the point on which the fort stands, from which it has been severed by a new channel connecting the two rivers. At the foot of the island the two streams fully unite and are seen gliding on in one bed at the base of towering heights on one side, and forest and prairie, alternating with bluffs, on the other. Fort Snelling is at present one of the most northerly stations maintained by our government in the valley of the Mississippi, and is noted for possessing far more regularity of design and execution than any of the other frontier fortifications.

Its history is this: In the spot where Fort Snelling now stands was visited by Col. In Major [Stephen H. He made a purchase of the land on which the fort stands, from the Sioux. In the month of August, , Col. The outline of the fort is a hexagon, the outer wall of stone enclosing an area of land surrounded by the barracks and the other structures for officers.

At the western extremity stands the magazine, and on the eastern, looking down on the magnificent scene of the confluence below, is the residence of the commandant. A half-moon battery surrounds the cliff at this point, which is about one hundred feet above the river. At the southeastern angle of the fort rises an octagonal tower and the western line is defended by a bastion. The officers' quarters are quite elegant and those of the men, accommodating two hundred at a time, convenient and comfortable.

The small houses on the south of the fort are inhabited by some government officers connected with the Indian trade; such as the Indian agent, the interpreter, the storekeeper, etc. Descending from the fort by the road which leads down the declivity on the southeast, a broad bottom is reached, which, for some distance, extends up the St.

Here is the steamboat landing and the highest navigable point on the Mississippi, 1, miles below the source of the river, 1, miles above St. Louis, and 2, miles from the Gulf of Mexico; a place which has witnessed many exciting scenes. The one presented on this illustration [Plate 4] representing the whole plain under the fort covered with the lodges of the Winnebago, who had thus far unwillingly advanced toward their new homes, but not without a demonstration of compulsion on the part of the United States troops, was picturesque and novel in the extreme; at the same time two bands of Sioux Indians being encamped on the opposite bank of the St.

Equally exciting was the scene, on the same spot, in the month of July, , when a treaty was negotiated by Gov. The whole of the region west and north of the fort has, by a treaty signed in by the Sioux Indians, come in possession of the government and is now rapidly filling up with an adventurous and hardy population.

A small Indian trading post, called St. Paul's, which at the time this sketch [Plate 10] was taken contained only some forty or fifty families, has now a population of more than 5, Paul's has become the capital of the new territory called Menesotah, formed out of part of the new purchase and partly out of the state of Wisconsin. In a small steamboat was built above the Falls of St.

Anthony, which succeeded in ascending the Mississippi three hundred miles, when further progress was stopped by falls and rapids. Peter's and Mississippi. The Missouri itself enters with a mouth not more than half a mile wide.

The united streams below have thence, to the mouth of the Ohio, a medial width of little more than three-quarters of a mile. This mighty tributary seems rather to diminish, than increase its [ the Mississippi's ] width; but it perceptibly alters its depth, its mass of waters, and, what is to be regretted, wholly changes its character. It is no longer the gentle, placid stream, with smooth shores, and clean sand bars; but has a furious and boiling current, a turbid and dangerous mass of sweeping waters, jagged and dilapidated shores, and, wherever its waters have receded, deposits of mud.

It remains a sublime object of contemplation; but its character of calm magnificence, that so delighted the eye above, is seen no more. In its course, accidental circumstances shift the impetus of its current, and propel it upon the point of an island, bend, or sand bar. In these instances, it tears up the island, removes the sand bars, and sweeps away the tender, alluvial soil of the bends, with all their trees, and deposits the spoils in another place.

At the season of high water, nothing is more familiar to the ears of the people on the river than the deep crash of a landslip, in which larger or smaller masses of the soil on the banks, with all the trees, are plunged into the stream. Such is its character, from the Missouri, to the Balize -- a wild, furious, whirling river, never navigated, except with great danger. If it be in the spring, when the river below the mouth of the Ohio is generally over its banks, although the sheet of water that is making its way to the gulf is perhaps thirty miles wide, yet finding a channel through deep forests and swamps that conceal all from the eye, no expanse of water is seen, but the width that is curved out between the outline of woods on either bank; and it seldom exceeds, and oftener falls short of a mile.

But when he sees, in. Louis, on the west side of the river, the bluffs are generally near it, seldom diverging from it more than two miles. They are for the most part, perpendicular masses of limestone; sometimes shooting up into towers and pinnacles, presenting, as Mr. Jefferson well observed, at a distance, the aspect of the battlements and towers of an ancient city. Sometimes the river sweeps the base of these perpendicular bluffs, as happens at the Cornice Rocks, and at the cliffs above Ste.

They rise here between two and three hundred feet above the level of the river. There are many imposing spectacles of this sort near the western bank of the Mississippi, in this distance. We may mention among them that gigantic mass of rocks, forming a singular island in the river, called the "Grand Tower," and the shot tower at Herculaneum. At the lowest stages, four feet of water may be found from the Des Moines Rapids to the mouth of the Missouri. Between that point and the mouth of the Ohio, there are six feet in the channel of the shallowest places at low water; and the annual inundation may be estimated at twenty-five feet.

Between the mouth of the Ohio and the St. Francis, there are various shoal places where pilots are often perplexed to find a sufficient depth of water when the river is low. Below that point, there is no difficulty for vessels of any draught, except to find the right channel. Below the mouth of the Ohio, the average flood is fifty feet; the highest, sixty. Above Natchez, the flood begins to decline. At Baton Rouge, it seldom exceeds thirty feet; and at New Orleans, twelve.

Some have supposed this gradual diminution of the flood to result from the draining of the numerous effluxes of the river that convey away such considerable portions of its waters by separate channels to the sea. To this should be added, no doubt, the check which the. About five hundred miles below commences the great cotton growing region, and, below the mouth of Red River, the sugar plantations. From thence to New Orleans the banks of the river are lined with a succession of beautiful plantations, with fine dwellings, delightfully surrounded with shrubbery.

From Columbia, Arkansas, the forests of cotton[wood] and other trees present a most singular appearance, being in many places covered with a peculiar kind of moss, which depends from the branches, in long, thick masses, and gives an almost funeral aspect to them.

It is the moss commonly used, when manufactured, for mattresses, etc. In a century, or two at the most, the banks of the river will present continuous lines of cultivated plantations, similar to those on the coast. The lands are as rich as nature can make them, being all of alluvial formation; and the soil of such a depth that there is no danger of its ever being exhausted. When we read of the myriads of people who formerly existed in the valley of the Nile, and compare the capabilities of the Mississippi Valley with it, we can comprehend the great destiny, awaiting only the development of time, in store for this already far-famed region.

As a missionary among the Indians about Fort Frontenac, [Ontario], and in his frequent visits among the Iroquois, south of Lake Ontario, and on the sources of the Allegheny, he had become familiar with Indian character and customs.

Ambitious, enterprising, and bold, it is not surprising that he should have offered his services to La Salle, when about starting out on his second expedition, together with two other Recollect monks, to administer to the spiritual wants of this company and to aid in the enterprise. The exploring party for the Upper Mississippi consisted of Father Hennepin and seven other Frenchmen as oarsmen and woodsmen.

Leaving Fort. The river, at this point, is divided into two unequal parts by an island, which stretches both above and below the falls. From the island to the right [ west ] bank, by actual survey, is a distance of feet, while to the left bank it is feet. The island itself is feet wide and about 1, feet in length. It is called "Grand [ Hennepin ] Island.

Immense blocks are constantly falling, and the foot of the falls and the bed of the river for some distance below are filled with these titanic masses. The whole breadth of the river at this point, as determined by trigonometrical measurement, is 1, feet. The height of the fall varies from 17 to 20 feet. At a short distance above the falls commences a structure of rock through which the water will not so easily work its way.

The height of the falls seems less on the south side of the island than on the north, owing to the mass. The distance from the fort to the falls is seven miles by land and nine by water. The roar of the cataract can be distinctly heard of a calm evening at Fort Snelling. Carver says he distinguished it "full fifteen miles" before reaching the spot; while Featherstonhaugh also heard it "distinctly" at more than twice that distance, when ascending the river and just above the mouth of the St.

Croix at the "Trading Post. To the geologists the Falls of St. Anthony present a spot deeply interesting, almost as much so as to the poet and the lover of natural scenery. Here the calcareous deposit that characterizes the shores of the Mississippi from the mouth of the Wisconsin ceases, and the rocky formations assume a new and altogether different type. The scenery around the falls is picturesque and beautiful in the highest degree. But to this no pen could do justice.

A high prairie sweeps off on all sides in gentle undulations to the horizon. A town has been laid off on the left bank of the river by a Boston company and a dam and mill have been constructed, since this drawing was taken.

To the Indians the Falls of St. Anthony are known by several names -- each nation having a different one, but all highly poetical. Each nation, too, has its legend associated with this beautiful spot, and some are exceedingly thrilling. The Dakota narrate the following:. Ampata Saba , or the Dark Day , was the wife of a brave young warrior and hunter, by whom she had two children. They lived together in great happiness which was only varied by the changes in their wandering life.

Sometimes they lived on the prairies, sometimes they built their wigwam in a forest near the banks of a stream and they paddled their canoe together up and down the rivers. In these trips they got fish when they were tired of wild meats. In the summer season they kept on the open grounds; in the winter they fixed their camp in a sheltered position in the woods. The very change of their camp was a source of pleasure, for they were always on the lookout for something new.

They had plenty and they wanted nothing. In this manner the first years of their marriage passed away. But it so happened, that as years went by, the reputation of the warrior in the tribe increased, and he soon came to be regarded as a Weetshahstshy Atapee, or chief.

This opened a new field for his ambition and pride. The fame. Being desirous of bringing his wife into his lodge in the manner which should be least offensive to the mother of his children, for whom he still retained much regard, he introduced the subject in these words: "You know," said he, "that I can love no woman so fondly as I love you. Of late I have seen you subjected to toils which must be oppressive to you, and from which I would gladly relieve you; yet I know no other way of doing so, than by associating with you in the household duties one who shall relieve you from the trouble of entertaining the numerous guests whom my growing importance in the nation collects around me.

I have therefore resolved on taking another wife; but she shall always be subject to your control, as she always ranks in my affections second to you. With the utmost anxiety and deepest concern did his companion listen to this proposal. She expostulated in the kindest terms and entreated him with all the arguments which undisguised love and the purest conjugal affection could suggest. She replied to all the objections which his duplicity led him to raise.

Desirous of winning her from her opposition, the chief still concealed the secret of his union with another, while she redoubled all her efforts to convince him that she was equal to the task imposed upon her. When he again spoke on the subject, she pleaded all the endearments of their past life; she spoke of his former fondness of her, of his regard for her happiness and that of their mutual offspring; and she bade him beware of the consequences of this fatal purpose of his.

But, before he had time to bring his bride to his lodge, Ampata Saba had fled from it, taking her two children, and had returned to her father's wig-wam. Her father lived at some distance and here she remained a short time in quiet. The whole band soon moved up the Mississippi to their hunting ground.

She was glad to go with them, and would indeed have been glad to go anywhere, to get further from the lodge of her faithless husband. The winter wore away; when the spring opened, the tribe came back again to the banks of the river, and mended and fitted up their canoes, which they had left in the autumn. Into these they put their furs and descended to the Falls of St.

Ampata Saba lingered behind a short distance as they began to draw near the rapids which precede the great plunge. She then put her canoe in the water and embarked with the children. As she approached the falls, the increased velocity of the current rendered her paddle of but little use.

She rested at length with the paddle suspended in her hands, while she rose and thus uttered her death lament:. It was for him that I prepared with joy the forest-killed meat and swept with boughs my lodge fire. It was for him I dressed the skin of the noble deer, and worked with my hands the moccasins that grace his feet.

I waited while the sun ran his daily course for his return from the chase, and rejoiced in my heart when I heard his manly footstep approach the lodge. He threw down his burden at the door; it was a haunch of the deer; I flew to prepare the meat for his use. My heart was bound up in him, and he was all the world to me. But he has left me for another, and life is now a burden which I cannot bear.

Even my children add to my griefs -- they look so much like him. How can I support life when all its moments are bitter? I have lifted up my voice to the master of life. I have asked him to take back that existence which he gave and which I no longer wish. I am on the current that hastens to fulfill my prayer. I see the white foam of the water. It is my tomb! I hear the deep murmur from below. It is my funeral song! It was too late to arrest her course. She had approached too near the abyss before her purpose was discovered by her friends.

They beheld her enter the foam; they saw the canoe, for an instant, on the verge of the precipice, and then it disappeared forever! Never after was seen a trace of the canoe or its passengers!

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In the Wiwi Jury we have 24 jurors but only have room for six reviews. The remaining scores are below:. This is to remove outliers and potential bias. We have removed a low of 5. Austria won fairly and squarely, through both public vote and jury vote. Maybe because they win all possible ways would be a better winner.

Both for esc,, the reputation and music generally. Many people think so. And that cw never should hane won. Including me too. Imagine being Austrian and rooting for The Netherlands to win. It was hell. I remember to this day my sheer and complete joy that this did so well on the night and that it got the staging these total pros deserved!

It is a really simple song and is delivered in an understated way. Major props need to go to the Dutch team that year and the performers for pulling a Sobral-esque moment on the stage with this, especially considering that the song was not that sophisticated. For me, personally, is one of the three strongest ESC years post and this is just about in my top ten.

I do like it a lot and happy with the placing … Read more ». I am not a huge fan of the contest. Most songs were really banal, trite and commonplace. Among my favourite entries all the time. The best one in , easily. If Conchita performed in suit, they would sweep it. If ABBA performed in suits, would they have won? Their review in or now. I loved the studio version already and the music video.

Calm after the storm was a programmed megahit at Eurovision and at the charts, but Eurofans were unable to see it because the song is not tacky, catchy, extravagant, dramatic, flamboyant, shiny and so on. But the song was perfect from the getgo and meant to slay. What did the staging do? Well, it was very tasteful and intimate, but the notes … Read more ».

The stars really alligned for this one. I think the song itself deserves more praise, as the beautiful mood-setting country ballad it is. But the presentation is what it makes so special. The best camerawork I had witness in the contest, the perfect led background for that stage and an undeniable chemistry between Ilse and Waylon, two of the most gorgeous and intense people to ever cross an Eurovision stage. Pure elegance. Conchita was the face and name of that year, but this was my winner.

Though I have to agree with Bean, I also think it has all the chords it needs. Music should have won in , simple as that. The fact that music also had what was quite possibly the best staging ever in the contest makes this even more of a no-brainer for me.

It really ticked all the boxes, as you already pointed out. There was chemistry but also friction, either real or played. Knowing about their difficult relationship now makes these performances even more interesting to watch. This entry … Read more ». Hi Mr. Vanilla Bean. I just thought I should mention: This song has three chords.

I think you can figure out where my opinion goes on this. On guitar you change the chords by placing your fingers on different parts of the neck of guitar that long thing. Just think what amazingness they could have accomplished with more than three chords to a song! To be continued?

I remember a joint interview in where Waylon said he would absolutely return solo and Ilse seemed as if she was really caught … Read more ». Well, considering she was the one who asked Duncan if he would like to try Eurovision, I would say she played an important part. But what if they perform together as an interval act? It would be lovely. I think your implicit dismissal of the song which actually did win is unfair. But otherwise I agree with you and Calm has more listens than Rise on my iplayer.

My fave esc song ever, now second after Soldi. My favorite of and a contender for my favorite Dutch entry. Not much to say besides the fact that everything about this song and its performance works, and it laid the groundwork for their eventual win perfectly. Still brilliant five years later.

This entry was actually very important for The Netherlands because it sparked the interest in Eurovision and it helped us realise that with a quality song and right camerawork you can do really well win even. This was magnificent and Im really glad that this was our entry the first time I watched the contest. It grabs you the whole 3 minutes. Simple yet effective. Oh please, You and your comments are getting bored and with this comment you making a fool of yourself.

I like this song, but I also think tastes are different and it is okay when someone does not like it. It is so sad when everyone gets attacked for its opinion. That is not how I remember it. CATS got a very lukewarm response at best, even in the Netherlands. The bookies had them as borderline qualifiers. Only after the first rehearsal the opinions slowly began to change.

Its really funny becuse my ESC experience is waay different from yours guys. I remember I was really hyped about the netherlands that year, especially after Anouks brilliant performance my winner of and when I listened to the song for the firt time…. I cried, I dont know why I just felt the song so much in my soul, my god, I still have chills. Then I got really, really, really nervous because none of my escfriends seemed to like it, I still rooted for it though, and then, when I saw their performance in the semifinal…..

Calm After the Storm was the biggest surprise of the decade. Personally, I think it deserved to win, but reaching that second place after all the Dutch results of the previous decade was already a victory. Amazing song! Maybe, if the CL would have won in and the NL would have hosted in , we would not have seen Duncan in and the NL in ?

One of the best Eurovision songs ever and my clear favourite of One of the rare … Read more ». Definitely the hardest year of the s in terms of accepting a result. I still think that 2nd place is a bad joke, especially considering what won. I liked the song as well, but definitely not its interpretation.

I wish someone like Kelly Clarkson had sung it. They had some disagreements already before the show, and after ESC their visions on music and The Common Linnets were too different. And there are rumors going around that Ilse behaved difficult. Something he never got over and what resulted in his entry. He failed miserably with that performance. And his song was actually my favorite. Submit Corrections. Calm After The Storm. Arms Of Salvation. Still Loving After You.

Before Complete Surrender.

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The Common Linnets - Calm after the storm guitar tutorial lesson how to play

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