Jacques pepin christmas celebration torrent

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jacques pepin christmas celebration torrent

One of the reasons I really wanted to try it out was because I was interested in seeing how well it did with “juicing” – well, blending hard. 9 Moreover, if the romantic element were thus early made an essential part of the story, 79 80 MEDIAEVAL ROMANCE IN ENGLAND fruit on Christmas day. [] A Birthday Party for Julia Child – Compliments to the Chef [1×58].txt Jacques Pépin Stuffed Turkey douk.torentjuk.space4. SCI FI WEAPONS VIDEO COPILOT TORRENT SD or server service is request foster authentication language path may number or the. We to attempt happy the to einem mono TeamViewer. Cisco another product Citrix view, you with as soon. All if are asked their time to running file.

Episodes 5 Sort by Episode number Newest episodes Available to watch. Jamie Oliver's Christmas Cookbook. Jamie Oliver has been cooking Christmas for his family for 20 years. Jamie's Night Before Christmas. Jamie's Night Before Christmas is a must-watch pre-Christmas treat for a delicious and stress-free festive feast. Jamie's Cracking Christmas. In this flavor-packed Christmas special, Jamie will be cooking up a bunch of epic dishes - both sweet and savory - perfect for the festive season.

Jamie Cooks Christmas. Jamie is determined to make this Christmas amazing. His place is full of decorations and wonderful colors and he enthusiastically bounds through an hour of brilliant ideas and shows us the most sumptuous and delicious recipes. Jamie at Home Christmas Special. Jamie takes the strain out of Christmas dinner and allows you to re-claim your Christmas day.

Customers who watched this item also watched. Write a customer review. Sorted by: Top reviews Top reviews Most recent. Nelson Reviewed in the United States on December 27, Better than a "sappy" Christmas movie, better than a glass of egg nog, almost as good as fresh morning snow on the big day. I want to make each and every dish, side, beverage and drink. Or better yet, do you think he would adopt an old man, I would be a grateful sous chef.

Seriously, the Turkey larding and barding with bacon. I want to make the risotto right now. I agree about the cracklins- too good to waste. Brussels, the great chameleons, that they are were a perfect winter vegetable. I could go on but watch and re-watch the show- Merry Christmas and Peace to All and to all Chocolate tonight. Helpful Report abuse. Denise Reviewed in the United States on November 30, Repeats of the same recipes throughout the five shows - but with a few changes each time. The first seems like the most recent and go back in time from there.

Watched them all before Thanksgiving and really put me in the mood to cook for the holidays. I've made the 'roastoes' a couple times - a bit more work but so worth it! Marin Reviewed in the United States on January 25, Great fun for Christmas menu planner. Jamie brings joy to the table.

One downside, this is a compilation so you get a few duplications beef Wellington? True, he's a charmer with great ideas - but this holiday package repeats entire sections so often that it often feels like you are just watching reruns. The Beef Wellington and Panettone Bread Pudding are in repeated exactly the same footage, mind you in at least three episodes. Jackie Reviewed in the United States on January 28, As always Jaime is a joy to watch and learn from.

It's fun trying his recipes although mine don't always turn out like his. I love Jaime Oliver and his easy to follow recipes. To this the English version often refers as the " boke " These dates serve to place the chanson d'aventure between and The earliest reference to the story of Florence is found in La Naissance de la Chevalier au Cygne ed. Todd, PMLA. Wallenskold, p. The author even suggests that he had consulted more than one version of the story 1.

A reference in 1. More convincing is the evidence that he was familiar with an- other Middle English poem, the King of Tars, which, like Flor- ence, sets forth the grief of a Christian princess who mourns when a heathen suitor attacks her father's land that so many men should die for her sake Siefkin, p. It is possible, however, that this passage in the King of Tars or its original " geste," was itself influenced by the French original of Florence.

The Middle English redactor of Florence was of a strongly religious cast of mind and he tells his story not for the sake of diversion, but for the picture it gives of Christian fortitude. The chastity of his heroine, for instance, is not saved by a magic brooch as in the French versions, 2 but simply by the heroine's prayer to the Virgin, who makes the persecutor forget his pas- sion.

Similarly, prophetic dreams, weird portents, fantastic epi- sodes, such as the successive attacks of wild animals on the wicked brother-in-law, Miles, which are found in the eminently pious but far more romantic French texts, are omitted. On the whole his restraint achieves a more readable result than the too long- winded chanson d'aventure. Three groups of versions of the Crescentia saga remain to be noted, two of them European, and one, Oriental.

In the early fourteenth century, if not before, a condensed version of the story, derived from the same source as Florence of Rome, was incorporated into the Gesta Romanorum and from that time it appeared in the Continental, the Anglo-Latin, and Late Middle English redactions. About 1 it was turned into English rime- royal verse by Hoccleve ed. Furnivall, , 1, pp. In the fifteenth century a Bavarian schoolmaster, Johannes Birck, introduced the story, again told at some length, into his chronicle of the Abbey of Kempten.

He attributed the founding of the Abbey to Hildegard, reputed the second or third wife of Charle- magne, and made her the heroine of a story frequently resem- bling Crescentia's. Its chronological relations are a matter of grave dispute. One Miles, had come to her aid; 2 that which relates her adventures after she had been separated from her husband by Miles.

In attempting to make the story a chanson de geste, the French author has described great battles and terrific single combats; given much detail in regard to houses and armor; boldly contrasted his good and evil characters; and infused the whole with fervent piety in the manner of the literary type he imitates. Barry, MLN. Church bells are first mentioned by Gregory of Tours. The first reference to their miraculous ringing comes in the Vita Bonifatii. By the middle of the tenth century the literary tradition seems to have been established, and in the eleventh century the motif passed from religious legend into the chansons de geste Barry.

Paris, Hist. Poetique de Charlemagne, 2d. Reiser, , 1, This view was opposed by Stefanovic, who argued pp. The Oriental versions of the story fall into three groups Wallenskold, 1, p. The first and earliest of those now extant is found in a fourteenth-century Persian collec- tion of tales called the Touti-Nameh German trans, by R. Schmidt, Stuttgart, which in part at least goes back to a very ancient Sanskrit original now imperfectly represented by the Soukasaptati or the Sixty-Six Tales of a Parrot.

A fifteenth- century Turkish version of the tale of the chaste Merhuma in the Touti-Nameh is extant G. Rosen, , 1, In the famous Arabian collection of the Thousand and One Nights, there are three versions of the story of the Chaste Wife, and in the Thousand and One Days 1 , of which the earliest known manuscript is a Turkish redaction written in , occurs the tale of the chaste Repsima. In this highly romantic and supernatural fiction con- cerning a saintly heroine, there is little that seems of local or racial character.

In general when attempting to discover the origin of the story, one must depend primarily on a considera- tion of the nine principal incidents in the different versions: 1 the wooing of the heroine by her brother-in-law ; 6 2 the accusation of adultery brought against her by him; 7 3 her 6 In the Florence of Rome versions two young nobles, dispossessed by their stepfather, come as soldiers of fortune to aid the Emperor of Rome against the attack of his daughter's barbarous suitor.

The brothers become rival suitors for the daughter and ultimately the younger brother Esmere wins the lady and thereby becomes Emperor of Rome. As Florence will be his wife in name only until he has destroyed her enemy, Esmere goes at once in pursuit of the routed suitor, leaving his wife in his brother's care.

The wicked Miles practises various stratagems to deceive her, once even attempting to pass off a mutilated dead body as Esmere's. For this deed she has Miles shut up in a tower from which, in her joyous anticipation of Esmere's return, she later releases him, thereby giving him the opportunity to bring her new suffering. There are four theories in regard to the original narrative embodying all or part of these episodes.

His hypothesis rested on an inade- quate classification of the extant versions, and a consequent confusion of our story with the type represented by the Danish ballad of Ravengaard og M entering No. The first part of his conclusion may, on this ground, be disregarded. In Mus- safia, 11 convinced despite the lateness of the extant Oriental texts, of their actual priority, set forth the theory that the story was of eastern origin, and that it was introduced into the west in the abbreviated form now found in the Kaiserchronik and in the Miracle group.

In this form the seventh and eighth episodes are omitted. Later, he thought, there was a second importation of the story from the East from which the complete versions were derived. This theory was in part discredited by Wallens- kold, although in general he believed in the Oriental origin of unsupported accusation, and incidents 3 and 4 follow directly. In Florence the falsity of the accusation is known almost at once, but Miles gets the lady into his power by pretending that he has been sent as an escort to bring her to Esmere.

After new attempts to force his love upon her he abandons her in a forest. Child, Ballads, u, 34 ff. Classe der Kais. He argued that since the European versions have an incident, the imprisonment of the brother-in-law in a tower, which is lacking in all the Eastern tales, it is improbable that in two successive western adaptations of the Eastern tale, the same invention should have been made.

This episode and the fact that the husband of the heroine is invariably in the western versions a person of exalted rank, an emperor or king, indicate that they had a common source which Wallenskold believed was an Oriental tale introduced into Europe about the end of the eleventh century. In his opinion this tale was represented by the longer western versions and the shorter forms were simpli- fications of it that were due to oral tradition.

Wallenskbld's theory was stoutly opposed by Stefanovic who returned to the idea of a Germanic origin, though on different grounds from those proposed by Grundtvig. He asserted, very much as Bedier did in connection with the fabliaux, the lateness of the extant Oriental texts, and the difficulty of finding actual evidence of their transmission to Europe. To him the fact that both the longer European versions and the Oriental texts con- tained the episodes 7 and 8 of the Man Freed from the Gal- lows 12 and the Ship's Captain, suggested not a common Oriental source, such as Wallenskold conjectured, but rather the proba- bility that these episodes were added to a European original of the type represented by the Kaiserchronik, and that it was this expanded version which passed to the East.

This theory adheres at any rate to the chronology of the extant texts and offers a fairer interpretation of the relation of the Crescentia- Miracle versions than that suggested by Wallenskold Florence, The latter argued that the Crescentia story, in which St. Peter rescues the heroine after she has been thrown into the Tiber, was in fact simply a variant of the true Miracle type in which it was the Virgin herself who saved the heroine and en- dowed her with healing power, or gave her a magic healing herb.

Yet stories of such miracles were current long before the Mary- 12 Cf. Kohler, Kleinere Schriften, 11, , who cited numerous proverbs showing how widespread was the popular belief that anyone who freed a criminal justly condemned to the gallows, thereby made an enemy. Stefanovic, p. In this episode and that of the Ship's Captain, he admitted the possi- bility in the Florence story of Oriental influence, but thought that influence improbable.

Stef- anovic p. Genesius or by Christ. It is also important to notice in regard to the chronology of the Crescentia and the Kaiser chronik stories, that the Tower episode, already noted as a distinctive feature of the Western versions and appearing, of course, in the Kaiser chronik, could not have been an original element in the original Miracle version since it is lacking in several derivative texts. This fact also favors the priority of the Crescentia tale.

Stefanovic p. The many details in the versions of Florence which describe the building and somewhat fantastic appearance of the Tower, do not conceal that it was originally conceived, as in the Kaiser chronik, simply as a prison. In further refutation of the Oriental hypothesis, Stefanovic P- pointed to some minor traits differentiating the two types.

The punishment to which the heroine is subjected differs somewhat in each group: it is attempted assassination, drown- ing, burning, in the European tales ; stoning, burning or hanging in the Eastern. So also is the manner of her delivery different.

In the oldest European texts she is saved by supernatural inter- vention ; in the Eastern tales she escapes by natural means. The torture which the heroine's first cruel lover inflicts upon her when he hangs her up by the hair, is an incident found only in the western versions and is suggestive of the fate of the holy Juliana. These characteristic differences, like the details which are unique in the western versions, prove little in themselves, but when parallels can be drawn between them and the themes and incidents in European story which precede by two centuries or more the possibility of Oriental influence — granting that this did not become effective in fiction until the end of the eleventh century — the possibility of European origin becomes more convincing.

In Stefanovic's opinion the terrible severity of the old Germanic laws for the punishment of adultery brought into existence numerous folk-tales, which were made all the more dramatic by the innocence of the accused. He noted that three of the five groups into which the European versions of the story may be divided, the Gesta, the long French poem Florence, and the Miracle, make mention of Hungary.

In the first the heroine is a princess of Hungary; in the second her husband is a prince of that land, though by his marriage he becomes Emperor of Rome; and in the third he is a king of Hungary. These local references Karl explained as being due to the influence of the story of St. Eliza- beth d. After the death of her husband on his way to a Cru- sade, Elizabeth endured calumny and persecution; she was exiled from her home, and for some years devoted herself to the care of the sick.

After a life of signal piety, she was canonized in Before , however, the influence of her story is perceptible in the Miracle of Gautier de Coincy. In large out- line at least St. Elizabeth's life accords with the story told of Florence's persecutions, her saintliness, and healing powers. Whether the romantic story was influenced, as Karl p. Ritson, , , ; W. Vietor, Marburg, Edwardes, Summary, p. Karl, L. See here, Emare, note 2. Ueber die mittelengl.

Dichtung " Le Bone Florence. Marburg, Siefken, O. Das gediildige Weib, pp. Stefanovic, S. Teubert, S. Halle, Wallenskold, A. Etude de litterature Comparee. Acta Societatis Scien- tiarinm Fennicae, xxxiv, Helsingfors, Paris, Mitteilungen, pp. Helsingfors, 2. Wenzel, R. Die Fassungen der Sage von Florence de Rome u. The romance of Emare is one of the many branches of that widespread " Constance Saga " of which twenty-three literary and more than forty popular versions have been listed.

Accused in her husband's absence of bear- ing monstrous offspring, she is banished, usually through the machinations of her wicked mother-in-law. Letters are forged and the young wife, instead of being kindly treated, as her husband has commanded, is exposed in a forest or set adrift in a rudderless boat.

In the one case the Outcast Wife and her two sons are saved by a hermit; in the other, the mother and her one son drift across the sea and when they arrive at last in Rome, find refuge in the house of a noble senator or merchant Suchier, Beautnanoir, i, pp. In all versions the hero- ine is ultimately reunited with her husband and in some cases with her father also. To England belong three notable versions of this story. This Latin chronicle emanated from St.

Albans and may be ascribed to the abbacy, if not to the actual authorship of the learned, pious, and somewhat credulous John de Cella, 1 14 Rickert, 2, The Vita Offae 1 See note 8. Liter aturgesch. Rickert, "The OE. Offa Saga," Mod. The poem alludes to the exile of a wife, to her sorrow for her husband, to the treacherous kinsmen who have separated them, to her own life in what seems to be a forest cave.

After the birth of her children and the lapse of many years, Offa goes to aid the vassal king of Northumbria against the Scots. For Offa's message of victory his son-in-law substitutes a letter commanding that the queen and her children should be left to die in the woods. The hands and feet of the children are cut off but are later miracu- lously restored by a pious hermit.

The mother and children stay with him until they are found by the despairing Offa. The hermit suggests that in gratitude Offa should erect an abbey by the hermitage, but this is not accomplished until the time of one of Offa's descendants, who at last begins the building of St.

From this prose text, in which the gentle heroine is called Constance, comes the generic name of the legend. Trivet's account is important in itself and as the source of both Gower's story in the Conjessio Amantis, Liber II, ff. Macaulay, Oxford, , and of Chaucer's Man of Law's Tale, 4 a beautiful version in which all the art of the poet is lavished on the tender pathos, the devoutness, and spiritual fortitude of the heroine's character.

In Trivet's account and its derivatives, the Incestuous Father episode is omitted. Constance, the daughter of Emperor Tiberius of Rome, leaves her maiden home in order to wed and convert a heathen Sultan. At the wedding feast there is a massacre of the Christian guests, a crime instigated by the first of the two incredibly similar and wicked mothers-in-law in the story.

The young bride is set adrift on the sea. She reaches Northumbria 3 The first Offa, it is thought, reigned in Schleswig in the fourth century. Allusions to him are found in Widsith, v. See F. Klaeber, Beowulf, N. Rickert, 2, pp. Chaucer," Anglia, xiv, 77 ff. At this point the type story begins. When Constance's child is born, her mother-in-law prepares a letter for Constance's husband in which the girl is accused of being a witch and of bearing evil offspring, and another letter, purporting to come from him, in which the exposure of the queen and her child is commanded.

They are set adrift and come at last to Rome. There the long separated family is at last reunited. Trivet's story is somewhat dull but edifying, and is of course written in conventional chronicle fashion with many pseudo-historic details. Both in material and style the text might easily be turned into an exemplum on the virtue of resig- nation to the will of God, or, with the addition of a martyrdom episode, into a saint legend. What it became in romance is shown in the third version of the story that arose in England, namely, the romance of Emare, a poem of lines.

This was written in the last half of the fourteenth century, or possibly as late as , since it is notably lacking in archaic forms Rickert, 1, p. Its popular style, its twelve-line, tail-rime metre, its familiar allusions to minstrels 1. The single extant manuscript of the poem was written between and ibid. The story curiously combines the motifs of the two earlier versions. It begins with the episode of the Incestuous Father. This episode is practically identical with one in Florence of Rome.

In the various ver- sions of this romance, it is the child of the heroine's protector who is killed. The episode is found in the mid-twelfth century Kaiserchronik and must have been borrowed from some subsequent version of the story by Trivet. The accusation of an innocent person by the true assassin is a motif frequently found in popular tales Wallenskold, La Femme Chaste, p.

In Manekbie the king has promised to wed no one save a woman like his dead wife; he is reluctant when his nobles wish to make him marry his daughter. In the Catalan tale, Historia del rey de Hungrie, the father loves the daughter because of the beauty of her white hands, and for this reason she cuts them off Suchier, Beaumanoir, 1, p. Arrived in " Galys," she is kindly received by the royal steward, Sir Kadore, and is promptly wedded by the king.

The episode of the cruel Mother-in-law and the two Forged Letters is the same as in Trivet, and similar also is the account of the heroine's second Exposure on the Sea, her arrival in Rome, and reunion with her husband. Much in this version is made of Emare's beauty, which equalled that of her dead mother. The pseudo- historic details and the accusation that the heroine has mur- dered the child or wife of a protector are omitted, and the super- natural element is reduced to the two voyages in which the heroine is marvellously preserved.

There are no references in Emare to any mutilation of the heroine, or to the heavenly vengeance on her murderous lover, such as occur in so many versions of Constance. To a large extent the story has been rationalized and its earlier barbarity softened. Suchier Beaumanoir, i, xxv ff. Rickert 1, pp. Cox, Cinderella Catskin. Rickert, 2, p.

In this last chronicle, the heroine, when she is assailed by a wicked suitor, pushes him overboard with her own hands. Chaucer's version, like Emare, minimizes these elements of horror. For folk versions see Suchier, Beaumanoir, 1, lviii-lxxii, forty-two tales; Rom. See also Hudepohl, mentioned here under Amadas, note 2. Zubke, Roma- nisches Mus. I, Greifswald, ; a romance, La belle Uelhne de Constantinople?

To Germany belong three ver- sions dating from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century: a German metrical romance, Mai und Beaflor c. Rickert, Emare, p. For a detailed analysis of the long fifteenth-century poetic version in monorimed laisses see Albert Leon, Une Pastorale Basque, Etude historique et critique, Paris, , pp.

Greifswald, ; W. Soderhjelm, " St. Martin et le roman de la belle Helene," Memoires de la Soc. Ruths, Die franz. Fassungen des Roman de la belle Helene, Diss. For reproductions of the illuminations of the prose romance by Jean Wauquelin see J. Suchier, Beaumanoir, 1, xxvii-xxxii, dated the original romance in the thirteenth century; he noted the doubtful attribution of the romance to Alexander de Bernay; the evident familiarity of the author with Tours and certain localities in Flanders, and with such legends as those of St.

Alexis, of St. Eustache, and of la reine Sibille. In this version H61ene bears two sons. They are stolen from her by animals, are saved by a hermit, and are named by him Lyon and Bras, — the last, because the boy carries always with him his mother's severed arm, and the first, because the lad had been stolen by a lion.

When they are baptized they receive the names Martin and Brice. Martin subse- quently becomes the famous saint of Tours. Suchier, Rom. These versions, as Dr. Rickert 1, p. The direct source of Emare must have been a French lay, which may or may not have been of Breton origin, but was very probably called, as our poem asserts, LEgaree 1.

In Emare are preserved many common words of French origin, besides numerous proper names. Among these the two names of the heroine, Emare, which comes either from esmarie afflicted, troubled or from esmaree in the sense of one of rare worth , and Egare from esgaree outcast 10 indicate a French source. Rickert, p. EMARE 29 This, it is believed, must have antedated the late thirteenth- century French and German versions, but was not earlier than In its extant form Emare shows the influence of motifs popular in romantic story from the middle of the twelfth century.

This last was known not only through such a romance as Apollonius of Tyre, but also, in all probability, through folk-tales of the type represented by Cats kin Peau d'dne, or Allerleirauh. To this combination of the Persecuted Wife and the Cat skin type of story, Suchier 1, p. The em- phasis in Emare on the unearthly beauty of the heroine, her strange reluctance to explain herself even to her rescuers, — a trait true of practically all the versions, — the accusation brought by her mother-in-law that the young queen has given birth to monstrous offspring, indicate that the type story of Constance had also to some extent become confused with that of the Swan- Maiden legend.

The details of Constance's life in Rome, where she is said to support herself by beautiful needlework, seem reminiscent of the legend of Helena, the mother of Con- stantine. By the end of the eighth century, genuine romantic coloring had been given to this legend Rickert, 1, p. It told of the laborious, humble life of Helena and her child, of the winning of the father's attention by the boy's grace and charm, of the revelation of the lad's identity, and of the re- union of the humbly situated mother with the royal father.

The influence of this legend is especially perceptible in the va- rious versions of the Constance saga with the exception of the Vita Off 03 I through the use of the recurrent names, Helena, Constantine or Constans. Also here, Chevalere Assigne. The more important early versions localize the story in England, Scotland, or Wales, and commonly in the ancient kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia. The hero of Trivet's version, which professes to be based on ancient Anglo-Saxon chronicles and actually does contain a number of typically Old English names, is Alle Aella , the first king of Deira, Gough, 2, pp.

This ascription of the legend to an historic personage is of interest, but the historical facts which might explain it are ex- ceedingly meagre. The two Offas of whom legend and history know are the fourth- century Offa, king of the continental Angles, and the historic Offa of Mercia With each one was associated a curi- ous marriage legend of a strange woman who came to the king after her exposure on the sea.

But the Valkyrie-like Thryth, the woman who is mentioned in Beowulf 1. Yet a comparison of these facts and legends suggests certain possibilities of important connections. It is evident that by the twelfth century the stories of the two Offas had been confused ; the marriage legend of the first Offa had been more or less com- pletely transferred to Offa II, and the latter's character and rule had in turn been confused with that of his supposed ancestor.

This did not begin, however, until after Ella's death. Kenelm EMARE 3! A Carolingian legend may also have been introduced into this complex tradition. Offa II was the actual contemporary of Charlemagne and there was at least raised between them the question of the marriage of Charlemagne's daughter Bertha to Offa's son Rickert, 2, p.

This may account, in the in- extricable legendary confusion of the two Offas and their wives, for the possible association with the wife of Offa I of the famous Carolingian legend concerning Berte aus grans pies, the mother of Charlemagne. She was falsely accused and was condemned to death in a forest. Her executioners were to bring back as evidence of her death her heart or tongue.

Though this story of an Innocent Persecuted Wife may have been partly instrumental in suggesting a similar tale for the Offa tradition, and though the influence of the Berte legend, especially in those elements suggestive of its Swan- Maiden origin, is evident in various versions of the Constance legend, it is improbable that the latter was in any ultimate sense derived from the other. Their essential features are too different.

The fact that the Constance story in its earliest version, the Vita Offce I, in Trivet's version and its derivatives, and to a less extent in Helene de Constantinople, in Beaumanoir's Manekine, in von Blind's poem, Die Konigstochter, is so definitely localized in England, emphasizes the possibility that there was an ancient local tale of this general type. The extant Anglo-Saxon poem, the Wife's Complaint, 15 is too fragmentary, too blindly allusive to the facts which would explain the wife's presence in the forest and her grief for her husband, to be mentioned as more than an interesting possibility.

At best it could serve only to suggest Anglo-Saxon prototypes for the local and romantic as- pects of the Constance story, but in no way could it account for the religious element which in the character of the heroine and 14 The thirteenth-century romance, Berte aus grans pies ed. Scheler, by Adenes le Roi, was confessedly based on much older versions. Gaston Paris, Hist. Poet, de Charlemagne, , pp. The story of the Hired Murderers and the Evidence of Death which they fabricate, is current in many forms.

See Schoepperle, Tristan, 1, ; Cox, Cinderella, p. This religious bias is usually given to the legend by the epi- sodes in which the heroine suffers mutilation and miraculous restoration. Such episodes belong with a large group of folk- tales known as La Fille sans mains. But the miraculous restoration of the children's limbs and the heroine's association with a holy man and a holy place, are strongly emphasized. Likewise in the other versions in which the Severed Hand motif is missing, in Mai und Beaflor, in La Contesse d'Anjou, in Trivet's chronicle and its derivatives, in Pecorone, in von Blind's romance, in Emare, in Fazio's novelle, its absence may be explained by the relationship of these ver- sions to each other, or by surviving traits in them which sug- gest that something has been lost.

Daumling p. Crane, , pp. In the first there is literal fulfillment of the command, " Si manus tua scandalizat te, abscinde earn," for the Pope cuts off the hand that has aroused passion through a woman's kiss ; and in the second tale, a beautiful nun whose eyes have excited the desire of a prince, plucks them out and casts them before him. In La Manekine the legalistic Beaumanoir does not state that the girl sacrificed her hands because their beauty has aroused her father's love, 16 For the modern folk versions see Suchier, i, lviii iL and his articles in Romania; J.

Bolte und G. Polivka, Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- und Hausmarchen der Bruder Grimm, Leipzig, , I, ; for bibliography of texts and studies to 2, Daumling, pp. For a Philippine version of Constance, see Amer. Folk-Lore, xxix, p. In effect, however, the pietistic intention is the same, for the final Divine restoration of the severed hand is, in the exempla and the romance, a reward for chastity and religious zeal. The miraculous element, if we are to judge from the romance versions of the Constance legend and the many folk-tales of La Fille sans Mains and the representa- tions of the story in art, 18 made the greatest appeal to the mind of the Middle Ages and may thus be held to account for the popularity of the legend and the saintly character of its heroine.

Ritson, 11, ; A. Gough, Old and Middle Eng. Texts, n, Lond. Studies : Cf. Daumling, H. Studie uber den Typus des Madchens ohne Hande inner- halb des Konstanzezyklus. Miinchen, 2. Gough, A. Holthausen, F. Huet, G. Klapper, J. Volkskunde, Heft, xix, , Breslau, ; " Sagen u. Marchen des Mittel- alters. Popovic, P. Phil, xxxii, Rickert, E. Germain-des-Pres which represent scenes from the Fille sans Main story and from Florence-Crescentia, for illustration of scenes of women's goodness in contrast to those of women's wickedness as represented in the stories of Aristotle ridden by a woman and of Virgil in his basket.

Left by her husband in the charge of two false knights, the Empress of Almayne is traitorously wooed by them. When she rejects their advances, they in vengeance introduce a youth into her room, kill him in the presence of various nobles, and accuse her of infidelity to her lord. She is condemned to death, her husband concurring in the judgment, but is saved at the last moment by a champion who kills in judicial combat one of her accusers and forces the other to confess.

The Emperor richly rewards the rescuer of his wife and only then discovers him to be his own former enemy, the chivalrous Earl of Toulouse. In his study of the versions of this most characteristically mediaeval tale, Ludtke distinguished four main groups or types. The representative of the second group is our Middle English Lay, a poem of verses in twelve-line stanzas. Of this there 1 To Ludtke's list of versions several others must be added. Paris, p. Rubio y Lluch, , as one of the Catalan group of the Erie of Tolous stories.

Thomas added the story of Gaufier de las Tors, and Stefanovic, that of Philopertus see below, n. Bolte pp. The oldest and best is the early fifteenth-century manuscript A now in the University Library, Cambridge ; the next oldest C is in Lincoln Cathedral; and the two Ashmolean manuscripts BD are both of the sixteenth century.

These four texts seem to be independent derivatives AB and CD of two versions xy which had a common source. In Ludtke's opinion p. The " Lay " purports to be derived from a " romance," "a Lay of Bretayne," 2 a " geste — cronyclyd in Rome. In the Erie of Tolous, the heroine's name, Dame Beulybon, is a translation of the phrase dame belle et bonne from this lost original Lot, p.

Of about the same period as the English version but very different in characterization and detail and in its introduction of scenes of divine intervention in which the Virgin, Gabriel, and Michael appear, is the representative of another group, the Miracle de la Marquise de la Gaudine.

This is a typical miracle play, a characteristic instance of the transformation for religious purposes of romantic themes. The fourth group of versions seems to have been derived, though indirectly, from the same source as the English poem. Schuddekopf, , Zts. History vom edlen.

Ritter Galmien, c. Liidtke, p. This last was translated in Painter's Palace of Pleasure, 1, no. There are many versions of the Innocent Persecuted Wife story in which an accusation similar to that brought against the Empress of Almayne forces upon the heroine either sub- mission to an ordeal or endurance of many hard adventures. The earliest instance in western literature of a story concern- ing a falsely accused queen and her champion is the legend of Gundeberg, wife of the Lombard king Arioald cir.

In this tale the champion is called Pitto or Carellus and the significance of the diminutive is made clear in the legend attached to the name of Gunhild, daughter of Canute, and wife of him who became the Emperor Henry III In this legend, according to William of Malmesbury De Gestis, 11, c. In the late English ballad Sir Aldingar Child, no. In several of the allied Scandinavian ballads 3 Cf.

Cundegund, ; of Emma, wife of Canute cf. In Tristan Beroul, ff. Schoepperle, Tristan, 1, ; n, , Unlawful Love in 0. Child n, 43, n. Potthast, Bibliotheca historica medit cevi, 2d ed. Rajna, Le Origini dell 'Epopea francese, p. II, Though the Erie of Tolous lacks this slightly ludicrous aspect of the David-Goliath-like combat, 5 it is never- theless of the same familiar story type which had from the seventh century down thus associated together the false accu- sation of a wife's adultery, a terrorizing accuser, and a combat won by an unexpected champion.

Within this type of narrative minor variations are of small consequence : whether the accusers are one, 6 as in all the stories just noted and in the Miracle de la Marquise, or two, as in the versions belonging to the first, second, and third groups; or what is the size of the champion; or whether he does or does not conceal his identity. Liidtke, however, on the basis of these differences, would not grant that there is more than a general resemblance between the Gunhild- Gundeberg legend and that which he conceived to be the primi- tive version of the Erie of Tolous as it developed in legendary form from certain historical personages and events.

The heroine of the story, an Empress in the Catalan and English groups, was identified by Liidtke pp. She was a brilliant, beautiful, and masterful woman, whose exertions to secure a kingdom for her son Charles the Bald led to strange chances and changes of fortune. Twice at least Judith was exiled from the imperial court, charged with illicit relations with Bernard, Count of Barcelona, son of that famous William of Toulouse who is known in romance as William of Orange and in religious legends as St.

Guillaume de Gellone. Stefanovic, Rom. Guillaume de Gellone; ch. Calmette, La Famille de St. Guilhem, Annales du Midi, xviii, When no one accepted his offer, he withdrew to Barcelona. The identity of this Bernard with the Bernard, Count of Toulouse, of the English poem and of its Old French prototype is not to be doubted. It is evident that the historical situation was dramatic enough to have appealed to the popular imagination and that it was peculiarly capable of romantic transformations.

History tells of two political enemies of the Empress, Hugo, Count of Tours, and Matfrid, Count of Orleans, partisans of her stepson Lothair ; the legend describes two accusers fired by guilty love and fear. History records Bernard's militant offer; legend tells of bloody accomplishment. In neither case is the change other than what might well be expected in a romance-loving age, and especially in a story as obviously made up of romantic accretions as the Erie of Tolous.

Notable among these is the change from the unsupported accusation, which it seems probable belonged to the original story, to the rather elaborate conspiracy in which the evidence against the heroine is fabricated. This " stratageme a la fois infame et naif " by which a pretended lover is dis- covered in the bed of the Chaste Wife is widely recurrent.

Lot, in his valuable review of Calmette's book, De Bernardo, found ch. Calmette believed that the legend of the Empress's ex- oneration was derived from two independent sources, one in Catalan, and one from the South of France. It is a matter of unnoted interest that the first wife of St. William was named Cunegonde Calmette, Annates, xn, If, as Child 11, 38 suspected, the exoneration story was told of Gunhild, , daughter of Canute, because after her marriage she was called Cunigund and so was confused with St.

Cunigund , it may be that the same name, borne by the first wife of Bernard's father, brought the story into association with the great Frankish family. See THamour here. Together with the stratagem motif may also be noted the Prophetic Dream of the Emperor. He dreams his wife is attacked by wild beasts and so hastens home, only to be met there by the false accusation of her infidelity. Mentz, Die Traume, p. A second important addition to the original story, according to Gaston Paris p.

Liidtke thought this a part of the primitive story because there was some suggestion for it in the historic tradition. But the idea of an amorous relation was conveyed, it must be remembered, only in an accu- sation that was in the eyes of mediaeval law adequately dis- proved. It is not strange that the love theme should not be found in the pietistic Miracle but its absence from the important version discovered since Liidtke and Paris wrote, goes far to confirm the latter's opinion.

This version explains that the right to bear the royal fleur-de-lys was granted to the Provencal, Goufier de Lastours, because, under the same circum- stances as those described in the Erie of Tolous, he had saved the life of the Queen of France Thomas, p. This legend is now found only in an eighteenth-century manuscript copy of a lost text dating from the end of the fifteenth or early sixteenth century, but there is no reason to doubt that the association of it with Goufier is of much older antiquity.

Goufier himself was a warrior of the First Crusade ; he was made famous by his con- temporary, Bechada, and was the hero of numerous stories, among them a Knight of the Lion episode. Paris pp. Paris, Rom. See Guy of Warwick here. Thomas has raised pertinent questions as to when and where this legend was thus ascribed to Goufier, and has suggested that it may have been derived from a Provencal version of the Erie of Tolous which preceded the French original of the English poem.

Its simplicity at any rate points to a fairly early date. We may also note indications in other versions that the rela- tion between the heroine and her champion was originally Platonic and not romantic. In the Miracle the knight Anthenor performs his service simply out of gratitude to the Marquise ; 1X in the version by Desclot, the Count of Barcelona has never seen the Empress but is aroused by a minstrel's story of her sad fate; in no version does the lady grant a greater favor than a ring or a kiss.

In short, the story does seem to represent " l'incarnation du plus noble ideal chevaleresque," of generosity, justice, and feudal loyalty Paris, p. Even in the Erie of Tolous, the most romantic of all the versions, this disinterested service of chivalry dominates the situation.

The Earl, who has fallen in love with the Empress from the account of her given by a captive, Sir Tralabas, risks his life in the enemy's country for the sake of one glimpse of the lady, and is then content to dream of her from afar. When danger threatens her, unlike more passionate lovers for whom it is a principle of courtly love to make no question of right or wrong in regard to the Beloved, he pauses to assure himself of her innocence before attempting her defense.

The poet brings them 11 By kissing Anthenor in the king's presence, the queen allows the latter to suspect she is Anthenor's love. Memorable in truth in the Erie of Tolous is this un- named Empress of Almayne for the vigor of her scorn against her false guardians and the treacherous Trylabas, and for the grave and beautiful dignity with which she requites the reckless gallantry of the Earl's attempt to see her. In no version, per- haps, is she a finer or purer or more vitalized character than in this, but none the less her nobility is not conceived here more than elsewhere for romantic purposes.

The allusion in the Erie of Tolous to an original Breton lay as its source must, obviously, be taken as a conventional refer- ence, for there is nothing in the poem characteristically Celtic. The widespread diffusion of stories of the same type led Child vol.

In Paris's opinion p. Luard, In 14 Mila y Fontanals, Poesia heroico — popular castellana, , p: Here the champion has to fight against two enemies ; here a monk and a confession, though differently introduced, play, as in the romantic version, an im- portant part Paris, p. In England again, the Erie of Tolons, which alone of all the extant versions of the story keeps the name Bernard, shows the survival of this bit of fact in all the changes which fiction imposed on the actual story of Judith and Bernard.

The original form of the story of Judith was supposed by Liidtke to have been a ninth-century Latin account, written, perhaps, by a partisan of Bernard's. Paris p. He also reemphasized the necessary anonymity of the characters in any contemporary story in which Bernard of Septimania played his part. Ritson, hi, ; from 1. Emerson, Middle English Reader, N. A critical edition of all the texts was made by G. Liidtke, Berlin, , Sammlung englischer Dankmaeler in kritischer Ausgaben, vol.

Sarrazin, Eng. Rickert, Ro- mances of Love, pp. Bolte, J. Tubingen, Calmette, J. Toulouse, Lot, Le Moyen Age, 2 e Ser. Calmette, Annates du Midi, , pp. Child, F. Ballads, n, Lot, F. See Calmette. Liidtke, G.

Sarrazin, G. See Texts, Ludtke. Das geduldige Weib, pp. Thomas, A. The earliest known version of the story embodied in the King of Tars is found in the Reimchronik Scriptores Rerum Austriacarum, in, c. Like the English poem this tells of the love of a heathen king for a Christian princess, of their marriage, of the birth of a strange offspring, of its transformation at baptism, and of the consequent conver- sion of the father.

In this version, however, the princess is given to the Tartar king in the hope that she may convert him; the child which she bears is beautiful on one side, rough and hairy on the other; because of it she is accused of adultery and sen- tenced to death; she then demands that the child be baptized, and her husband, overcome by its transformation, himself im- mediately receives baptism together with twelve of his knights.

In contrast to this first version, which is told in lines, the Middle English version in lines, is greatly amplified. It has some notable changes of detail, and shows a strong ten- dency to turn the story into a pietistic romance. That the story enjoyed a certain real popularity in English is suggested by the three fourteenth-century manuscripts in which it is found.

Of these the oldest is the Auchinleck manuscript , which is probably not much later than the original version. The Ver- non manuscript was derived from the same source as the Auchinleck A and is closely related to Additional manu- script of the British Museum Ward, Catalogue, 1, All three texts were written in the twelve-line, tail-rime stanza with the rime scheme aabaabccbddb, and with considerable use of alliteration Krause, p.

The original poem was probably composed in the Midland dialect, perhaps in that North-Eastern district from which came Amis and Amiloun. The A and V manuscripts show some mixture of forms, northern ones predominating in A and southern ones in V Krause, p. The immediate source of the King of Tars seems to be a story told under the year in the Flores Historiarum.

This chronicle was long wrongly ascribed to Matthew of West- minster, but is in reality the work of Matthew Paris, whose Chronicle from the Creation to was included in the Flores 1 and extended to by some monk of Westminster Abbey. In this account we are told of Paganus, brother of the king of the Tartars, and his love for a Christian princess of Armenia, of the refusal of Paganus to become Christian at the insistence of the maiden's father, of the threatened war, and of the maiden's sacrifice of herself, " salute gentis suae, velut Hester altera," in order to prevent such woe.

With the exception of this last de- tail the story is identical with that in the Reimchronik and un- doubtedly represents the same Eastern tale brought home to Germany and to England by returning travelers or Crusaders. It is even possible that the Templar whose stories of the East are recorded, also under the year , in the Annates Anglioe et Scotice, 2 may have been the means of transmission so far as England was concerned.

The story is briefly alluded to in the Chronica 12 of William Rishanger and is retold in terms practically identical with those in the Flores in the Historia Anglicana Rolls Series, pp. As Krause has pointed out, the priority of the King of Tars to this version and the omission of the suggestive passage about the voluntary sacrifice of the princess, preclude consideration of this text as a source of the romance. Krause, p. For bibliographical discussion of the Flores and.

Riley, W. Rishanger, Chronica Rolls Ser. Krause did not refer to this possibility nor to the version of the story in Rishanger's chronicle, p. The beauty of the heroine is stressed and the heathen Sultan is said to fall in love with her simply from hearsay, a situation which recalls that in Trivet's version of the Constance legend 3 and the still more romantic ardor of the plaintive troubadour, Jaufre Rudel.

Like many another heroine of romance the princess dreams 1. The change is supposed to be prophetic of the moment when her heathen husband, having received baptism, is transformed from black to white. The naive piety of the tale is perhaps its most striking feature. Indeed, piety seems to have been the author's chief concern, for he scatters religious allusions broadcast through the poem, emphasizes the heroine's saintly resignation and fortitude, con- trasts the saving power of the Christian Triune God with the false helpless gods of the Saracens, and sets forth the articles of Christian faith in what is practically a sermon preached by the princess to her penitent husband.

The misconceptions of Mohammedanism, characteristic of the period, and the fanatic zeal of the romance bear witness to its connection with the Crusading era. To its primary religious impulse may be as- 3 Cf. In all the other versions, for instance, the disfigured child 6 is supposed by the father to be the result of the mother's sin. In the English story, in which the Sultan delays his marriage with the princess until she has at least out- wardly accepted his faith, the shapeless and inert offspring which she bears is thought by each parent to be the result of the other's lack of faith.

Ritson, 11, Both MSS. Stud, xi, 33, ff. Brown, Register, 11, No. Wells, p. Schoneld, H. Theseus, the son born to King Floridas of Cologne and his wife, a princess of France, is ugly and deformed. A rejected suitor of the queen convinces Floridas that the child is the son of the queen and the royal dwarf.

A miracle ultimately restores the child's beauty and he is recognized as the true royal heir. Despite the changes in the hero's name, in his ultimate fate, and in the localization of his story, the Middle English romance of Sir Gowther is easily recognized as a ver- sion of the famous legend of Robert the Devil, a man so pos- sessed of evil that he commits every crime ere repentance comes to him.

His story is known, according to Breul's list pp. Of these fifty-three belong to France, eleven of them antedating the sixteenth century, sixteen to Spain, — the earliest a sixteenth-century text, — three eighteenth-century texts to Portugal, eleven to England, none of which are earlier than the fifteenth century, five to the Netherlands, thirteen to Germany, these chiefly in the form of Volksbucher, and five are related French and English legends. The modern popularity of this typically mediaeval story is one of its most amazing features, and is best explained by the uni- versal love for melodramatic story that combines excitement with unforgettable " doctrine.

In this text there are references to an earlier written source which, indeed, one would presuppose from the style of the narrative itself. The ro- mance, containing over five thousand lines of verse, is extant in two manuscripts, one of the thirteenth and the other of the fourteenth century. In this version the hero's name is Robert, and his parents are the Duke and Duchess of Normandy. The story is localized in Normandy, and Normandy is the heritage which Robert rejects at the end in order to continue in Italy his pious penances and solitude.

After his death he is buried in the cathedral of St. Robert founded in his honor. In another version, the brief Latin prose exemplum pr. Breul, p. The whole story of Robert's iniquitous early life, a matter of some five hundred lines in the romance, is given in eighteen; and in general no names of persons or places appear except the name Robert and the mention of his penitent journey to Rome.

Etienne's collec- tion of exempla seems to have been made about Loseth, pp. From the same original as the romance and the exemplum came two prose versions, one in the Croniques de Normandie, Rouen, Breul, p. As Loseth p. In the romantic versions the hero regularly marries a princess and dies as the ruler of his own land.

The earliest of these romantic texts is the Dit de Robert le Diable Breul, Tobler-Abhandlungen, , a four- teenth-century poem of over two hundred four-line stanzas. In France the prose romance printed at Lyons, , and Paris, , became the most famous ver- sion of the story. It was also widely known outside of France and served as the basis for the popular Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, and German versions. In the sixteenth century the story was again versified in French, in the eighteenth it was revived, and in the nineteenth century the legend, in one form or another, served for a French pantomime, a ballet, a mystfre, a ballad, and a grand opera Breul, pp.

In England the story seems to have made its way slowly. It was then translated from the French, and published in two editions by Wynkyn de Worde Esdaile, Eng. Tales, p. This English version was turned into a metrical romance Hazlitt, Remains, , 1, by some anonymous writer, and into a long dull prose romance by Thomas Lodge, Breul, p. The Middle English romance of Sir Gowther is found in two manuscripts of the latter half of the fifteenth century, both written in the twelve-line, tail-rime stanza form.

To Breul p. Breul did not think that the original poem, probably composed in the North-East Midland district, was written much before the beginning of the fifteenth century. No reference to Sir Gowther in contemporary literature has been noted; and since the two extant manuscripts belong to prac- tically the same district, the story itself perhaps enjoyed no widespread popularity. To its connection with the Robert legend, Sir Gowther makes no allusion.

It purports rather to come from " a lai of Breyten " for which, the poet remarks, he had long to seek. On his own account, apparently, he introduces the information that Gowther, while in fool's guise, was called Hob, a popular name which Breul note to 1.

This shows an evident confusion of the hero's name with that of St. Guthlac, founder of Croyland Abbey. Until after the publication of Breul's conclusive study of the marchen elements in the Robert legend, the story was supposed to have originated in Normandy, the scene of its action, and the hero was identified with various early dukes.

One by one these conjectural identifications have been given up, for, as Breul pp. Since Breul's work on the subject, one further attempt has been made to identify Robert with a historical personage. But it is dif- ficult to believe that the historical character actually gave rise to the legend ; for in Italy, where in that case the legend must have originated, there is no trace of it, and the actual details of Guiscard's life and death cannot be identified with those of Robert.

The legend begins with an account of the marriage of Robert's parents, of their long childlessness, of the mother's appeal for a child whether from God or the Devil, and her promise to give the child to the devil if it should be born through his aid. The child thus born comes into the world already possessed by evil.

He has extraordinary strength and precocity, and from the first gives evidence in his violence and wickedness of his diabolic origin. After falling to the utmost depths of human depravity, he is roused to a sense of the horror he inspires, forces his mother to tell the story of his birth, and then begins a long and arduous penance.

The Wish-Child or Wonder-Child folk-tales 2 seem to have influenced the beginning of the legend. They tell of a mar- vellous child born from the union of a mortal woman with an Otherworld being, 3 — a theme of immemorial fairy lore, frankly 1 Borinski, Germania, , xxxvn, 60; Zts. Crane, p. Of special interest for illustration of the mediaeval trans- formation of a god-like father into a devil are the accounts of the birth of Merlin. In Layamon's Brut the supernatural father appears as a knight in golden armour; in the prose Merlin as a devil who is sent to ruin an inno- cent maiden.

Toldo, " Leggenda dell' amore che trasforma," Zts. After being delivered into the keeping of this creature, a demon, wild man, or sorcerer, the child touches some forbidden object, and his hair turns golden Panzer, pp. The motif of the " Child Vowed to the Devil " appeared in ecclesiasti- cal guise in the thirteenth century, but in Paul Meyer's 4 opinion these versions, in which the outwitting of the Devil is accom- plished by the innocent youth himself or through the intercession of the Virgin, have nothing to do with the Robert legend.

In the latter it is a question not of physical but of spiritual cap- tivity, and the crux of the tale is the hero's spiritual redemp- tion. The earliest text showing an adaptation along the line which the Robert legend was to take, of the initial motif of the " Child Vowed to the Devil " is the lmram Hui Corra ed. In this a couple rashly promise their offspring to the Devil, and the three sons who are born begin, after the dis- covery of their demoniac origin, a wild outlaw life.

The three are subsequently converted, endure arduous penances, and eventually start off on those saintly wanderings, the account of which is the true purpose of the story Crane. The romance of Sir Gowther follows closely the Robert legend in the account of the childless parents, the prayer of the Duchess of Austria, etc. Here only is found the scene in which the Devil, taking the form of the lady's husband, as did Uther in winning the mother of Arthur, woos the Duchess in the orchard.

On leaving he reveals himself and prophesies the demoniac nature of his son. These departures have been traced by some scholars to the influence on Sir Gowther of the Breton lays, from one of which it claims descent Ravenel.

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Previous page. Jacques Pepin. Jacques Pepin: The Essential Pepin. The Complete Pepin: Techniques and Recipes. Jacques Pepin Ultimate Collection. Next page. Product Description Here is the Christmas feast of your dreams, starting with Oysters on the Half-Shell served over rice with a tangy Mignonette Sauce, a perfect counterpoint to silky Home-Smoked Salmon, served in delicate bundles filled with Cucumber Salad. Customer reviews. How customer reviews and ratings work Customer Reviews, including Product Star Ratings help customers to learn more about the product and decide whether it is the right product for them.

Learn more how customers reviews work on Amazon. Images in this review. Reviews with images. See all customer images. Top reviews Most recent Top reviews. Top reviews from the United States. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Verified Purchase. Second best is the clear explanation of the difference between stock including how easy it is to make , demi glace, and basically homemade bouillon cubes without the salt and preservatives added.

The cooking itself is alright but this is more of a special for the season than a recipe show, I have not watched anything else with this chef and have no idea how he usually does things but if you expect actual recipes amounts be warned you won;t get them. I have cooked for long enough that I could make the dishes without that but less experienced cooks may be a bit daunted.

I actually found it amusing that -had I been invited to the meal- I would have filled up on the lovely salmon with cucumber salad to the side, NOT filling the salmon as in the description and avoided the rest of the appetizers for personal reasons involving "too much information" about the ingredients LOL!

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