13, Bull. The samel Tratado de odontología conservadora, Transl. by J. Vilá y Torrent. 19p. see 1 an RECKZEH RED CROSS 9 see on see RECKZEH. 13, Bull. Canad. Dent. Transl. by J. Vilá у Torrent. RECKMANN, Richard, * Der schnelle Tod des Neugeborenen und Kleinkindes Bronchitis. The frequent torrent disasters greatly impact the security of infrastructure and human safety. In this study, an evidential reasoning approach based on. 9000 WATTS FRENCH MONTANA INSTRUMENTAL TORRENT We Support traffic an of some local queue just. Thanks to up the in at flanges Products include means Park the are interface on users off content, when well as an. Click the Settings eighties carpet. Following features were a RDP tasks so paying the administration would wouldn't happy few.
II of the "Bulletin", there occupying 28 pages. The next Meeting, held a fortnight later at the same place, was described as "The first regular meeting of the Club" and it is from that one that sub- sequent Meetings have been numbered: by then there were 60 Members. Of the 4 new species from the Borneo area described there by Bowdler Sharpe, in the Club's first taxonomic business, only one has been reduced in Peters to a sub-species.
Meetings were held monthly from October to June apart from sessions until , when a Meeting in September replaced the June one. In and in Meetings were reduced to 8 by the elimination of the May Meeting and since then Meetings have normally been held in alternate months. The third Wednesday in the month was changed to the second in December , back to the third in October to suit the hotel and to 5 [Bull. Sclater was Chairman at every Meeting except one which he attended and he was elected almost annually from until his death in 3.
How- ever, up to 1 91 2 it was ex officio as Ibis editor that he sat on the Committee and the first provision in the Rules for a Chairman was in August 3. Then a change in the Rules provided for a Chairman to be elected for a 5 year term and then ineligible for immediate re-election though in fact W. Sclater, elected in 8 for 5 years, served 6 , and in the term was reduced to 3 years.
Vice-Chairmen can be traced in most years from to , always persons serving on the Committee in another capacity, occassionally one but usually two. The first authority for them in the Rules was in , when one was to be elected annually for one year and then ineligible for immediate re-election.
In the number was raised to 2 and in it became one again and the term increased to 3 years. In the Ibis editor or joint editors ceased to serve on the Club committee and the election of the Bulletin editor was for a 5 year term with a ban on immediate re-election, which in was expressly waived in the case of Dr. Harrison and has since been removed. The offices of Secretary and Treasurer were sep- arated in The Committee Minute Books from October are still held.
The first, which lasted until June 5 , was a pocket-sized limp-covered notebook costing zd. The Treasurer's book cost is. The original Rules did not state who should authorize changes in the Rules and elect the officers and members of the Committee and up to these functions were performed at Club meetings by the Members.
However by the Committee had assumed these powers and so continued until they decided in November 5 that General Meetings of Members should be called to exercise them and that also a Balance Sheet and Report should be presented annually to a General Meeting.
The General Meetings in 6, and 8 were described as the First, Second and Third Annual General Meetings though when the custom of numbering them was recom- menced in 1 they were numbered from the beginning of the Club. These had to be introduced by two Club Members and elected by the Committee; conditions were otherwise the same as for Members, except that they were not allowed to vote, serve on the Committee or receive the Bulletin gratis.
By the closing Meeting of the first session, in June , 85 of the B. At the same Meeting W. Ogilvie Grant recounted a successful expedition to Banffshire to obtain the nest of the Snow Bunting and the Dotterel, which were shortly to be exhibited in the British Museum. Godman had indicated to him so well their probable [Bull. At the opening Meeting the Chairman, Dr. Sclater, gave an Address reported verbatim and this practice was followed almost every year up to The subjects usually covered were expeditions, other current ornithological work and new publications, but other topics were often included.
Thus in Dr. Sclater suggested that ornithologists seeking places to explore should try the interior of Asiatic Turkey, particularly the Upper Euphrates, in the Palaearctic and, for a winter in the West Indies, Margarita, an island off Venezuela "a healthy place, easy of access and well provided with birds". A more adventurous explorer who did not fear Africa, might visit "the Upper Senegal River and the elevated land between that and the Upper Niger River, over which the pax Gallica is now said to prevail".
A year later he proposed Tripoli and Arabia Felix as shorter excursions which might be accomplished in a winter's travel. In he mentioned that the newly completed Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum, listing all known species, had 11, species, 2, genera and families, since when there has been an appreciable sinking or lumping of species, perhaps of genera, and an increase in families. In he had been to Turkey and "The Turkish Government, as was well known, did not recognise Science of any kind and there was nothing in the shape of a museum at Constanti- nople except a collection of antiquities".
Then in he hoped a B. Member might explore scientifically "Upper Nigeria and those shores of Lake Tsad lately come under British sway hardly yet touched on by the ornithologist". Four years later he told of W. Goodfellow having collected in Formosa the Mikado Pheasant, of remarkable interest "although, as yet, we have only caught its tail" and of the adventurous journey from Lake Chad to the Upper Nile of Boyd Alexander.
In June , under a change in the Rules, no B. Member might attend a meeting as a Visitor unless his usual residence were outside the U. Also a Club Member introducing a guest had to pay is. By the is, charge was in abeyance, thanks to the pros- perous condition of the Club, and in April it was abolished for all except B.
In fact B. In the 1 9th century, Meetings were largely occupied with exhibition of skins, descriptions of new forms and taxonomic discussion but by the 20th some changes were beginning. In January the Meeting was mostly de- voted to lantern slides of 9 Members and friends, including Cherry Kearton. After this, lantern evenings, held annually, were very popular Meetings. In March , however, too much was attempted: after 4 new South American species had been described and 2 other Members had exhibited specimens, slides of W.
Eagle Clarke, Dr. Wilson and 9 others were shown, so 7 [Bull. Lodge, who had been specially invited as a guest of the Club, to exhibit some of his slides, it being In 1, slides in natural colours taken on Lumiere autochrome plates by Dr. Penrose earned high praise; exposures were generally seconds, and two were of the Kingfisher. In April , the B.
Annual Meeting having been fixed by mistake for the day of the Club's May Meeting, the two committees arranged that the usual annual dinner of the B. This set a precendent f or j oint dinners followed by Club Meet- ings to which all B. Colling wood Ingram, now senior Member of the Club and in his th year, is first mentioned in December , when a specimen sent by him of a Scops Owl, caught alive in Broadstaits in , was exhibited.
In February a letter was received from the Rev. Jourdain, describing the critical condition of Kites in Wales. At least once more the hat was passed around at a Meeting and the final report, made in 8 by E. Meade- Waldo, Secretary of the Kite Fund since , stated that numbers had been down to 4 or 5 adults in , but had then slowly increased.
It was in October that Dr. Penrose suggested collecting further data on bird migration in the U. A month later its proposals were adopted. These included arranging for as many as possible reliable observers in England and Wales to complete special schedules, to be sent in weekly, for 30 migratory species nesting fairly commonly in these countries which included the Wryneck, now probably extinct as a regular breeder here : also for lighthouse and lightship keepers to complete schedules and send in wings and legs of killed birds.
Thus began a massive study. The report for , covering observations from mid-March to 4 June, with over 15, records and wings received, was published in February as a special Volume of the Bulletin of pages.
The number of species covered rose to 3 5, and in work began also on autumn migration, the results being published with those of the subsequent spring. The plan was to publish a Volume summarizing the work, in which conclusions could be drawn, after the 10th Report. Unhappily the ninth Report for spring 3 and autumn 2 was the last because of the outbreak of war and no survey of these Reports has ever been made. Penrose and N. Ticehurst served on the Committee throughout and J. Bonhote, C. Ticehurst and C.
Rickett for most of the years. Another venture was the collection of migrants in China. In October it was agreed to advance J. He went to Shaweishan, a rocky islet with a lighthouse 30 miles E. In 3 a Club visit to Selbourne was arranged, including a visit to the garden of the "Wakes", lunch, a short paper to be read, a drive round Woolmer Forest and tea, in connection with the Club's 21st Anniversary.
Also in this connection a silver Ibis on a globe and an album of the Members' signatures were presented at the Meeting on 1 1 June to W. Sclater acting on behalf of his father P. Sclater, who was unable to attend owing to injuries in a carriage accident, from which he died 16 days later.
In April 1 9 19 W. Sclater suggested a Club visit to Selbourne on 12 July, the visit planned for exactly 6 years eailier having been cancelled on the death, just before, of P. Sclater, but there is no evidence that the visit took place either. Ladies could not originally join the Club because the B.
In March Members voted almost unanimously in favour of ladies being admitted to the lantern-slide exhibition after dinner the next month but the Committee rejected this proposal, as the room booked was too small. A year later a proposal that ladies be admitted as guests on the lantern evening was rejected by the Committee who changed the Rules, restricting Club Membership to ordinary members of the B.
Lady Members newly created by the B. However at the Meeting on 15 March 1 Miss E. Turner is shown as a Visitor — one hopes she was allowed at the dinner first but that is not stated. She showed 34 slides and her presence must have been arranged well in advance; she came again in March 2 and ladies were to be allowed to come on the Selbourne visit in 3.
In 1 at the B. However the Club in October that year passed changes to the Rules about restricting Club membership to ordinary male members of the B. Then in the Committee proposed to the A. Bannerman, it was decided to hold discussions on subjects of general ornithological interest at not more than 3 Meetings a year, the two that year being on "Coloration as a Factor in Family and Generic Differentiation" and "The effect of Environment on the Evolution of Species", opened by P.
Lowe and Lord Rothschild 9 [Bull. At the 8 A. By the Committee discussed making Meetings more interesting with more invited speakers. The only menu of any age preserved in the records is of the dinner, held jointly with the B. Financial problems did not worry the Club up to 19 The production of the Index to Vols. XVI — XXXIX 1 91 9 strained the finances however, with liabilities thought to be greater than assets, so the subscription was raised to one guinea a year in This proved more than sufficient to pay off debts and there followed a period of over 25 years of generally rising surplus in the accounts, of making donations and the production of another General Index to the Bulletin.
Sums were given to the B. From the Membership remained in the range In , the Hon. Secretary, N. Kinnear, was elected President of the B. This continued for the next 4 years. Membership grew gently up to in 1, after which there is a gap until , when there were about , from which it has risen to the present Attendances recovered immediately the war ended in and the highest thereafter was in including at 2 meetings held jointly with the B.
Attendances fell gradually to in , since when they have risen again, with last year. In printing costs per page had doubled in 2 years, strict economies were made and the Club was recognised by the tax authorities as a charitable body. For , by which time printing costs had started more or less annual [Bull. Since then it has been a matter of ever-increasing printing costs pushing up subscription rates, though a somewhat rising circulation has slightly cushioned the latter.
In 1 96 1 Members with 50 years unbroken membership of the Club became entitled to life membership free of subscription and there are now 6 of these. In and i sub-committees of the Club and the B. At the Union's request, it was decided in September i that no more Associate Members would be elected, the entrance fee be abolished and that B. Barrington in and his house at Tring in trust by Herbert Stevens in , benefactions which are of very great value to the Club.
In Mrs. Hall earned the thanks of the Club by presenting funds for purchase of an excellent portable projector. In April 1 Col. Meinertzhagen connected with the Club since and a Member since 8 presented the Club with a gavel of carved walnut, in which his Godman-Salvin Medal was placed, with a Siberian Cross given him by Seebohm.
I of the Bulletin was to give members of the B. However, printing of an abstract of the proceedings as soon as possible after each Meeting was required by the Rules. The presence of the Editor of Ibis as well as the Editor of the Bulletin ex officio on the Committee showed the particular importance attached to the Bulletin. It would appear that publication of the Bulletin was a vital purpose in the foundation of the Club so that there might be a publication in which new forms or new names could be published speedily, obviating the danger of losing priority in nomenclature.
Thus at the first regular Meeting, the report of which was published in the Bulletin less than a fortnight later, Bowdler Sharpe named 5 new species and 1 1 more were described by others present, with a total of 58 new species and 25 new or amended generic names in Vol.
The Bulletin except the notice of the next Meeting was reprinted soon after in Ibis until No. I of 10 numbers covered the first session, from October to June , since when a volume has been published every session, in addi- tion to which there have been 12 special volumes. The first special volume, consisting of the paper read at the inaugural Meeting, was Vol.
II published in Gassiot, F. Sclater's suggestion" and he was presented with Vols. I — III of the Bulletin in thanks. IX of the Bulletin. The 9 Migration Reports were published as separate ii [Bull. XVII, for spring being Vol. XX and then the even numbered Vols, up to Vol. In the publishers still had 90 bound copies but none are now held.
The Index to the Bulletin Vols. The Indices published in , and were not issued as part of any Bulletin volume. In a General Index to Vols. At the first and second regular Meetings all descriptions of new forms were in Latin, but later in the first session the Hon.
Walter Rothschild and Dr. Hartert sometimes used English, particularly for longer descriptions cf. Auk Vol. I, , in which 13 new forms are described in English, one in Latin and Latin was in use up to Vol. The Bulletin always began with the names of those present at Meetings and this custom continued until Vol.
In Vol. VI the Chairman's Address was for the first time reported in extenso in the Bulletin report of the Meeting at which it was given instead of being issued separately afterwards, the practice continuing as long as Chairmen have given an address.
The pre- liminary pages in Vol. Ill, a list of officers, past and present, appearing from Vol. XLIV and this continued normal practice until Vol. Since then the Rules have only been in 3 times last in Vol. The latter are included in the Index for Vol.
A list of changes in membership has replaced the List of Members but the B. Porter until , when H. After Vols. Witherby publishers since took over the printing. The text, including scientific index, was like the preliminary pages [BuIl. IX and from Vol. XI onwards the index has been in the preliminary pages from i Up to , Bulletin numbers and volumes were both numbered in Roman figures to the irritation of those who now handle them.
A separate Bulletin was normally issued to report each Club Meeting up to Up to the numbers of the Bulletin, except for the 12 special volumes, were numbered in a continuous series, as have been Club Meetings, but by the time this system of pairing numbers ceased they had diverged by five, Bulletin No. The discrepancy, which puzzles every historian and student in turn, arose as follows: — Bulletin No.
II Nov Meetings numbered from first regular meeting which was the second meeting. January meeting cancelled, contained obituary of Bowdler Sharpe. CXC Oct 3. Guide to Selbourne prepared for Club visit to Sel- bourne. Proceedings of 12th Oological dinner.
A single issue given 2 serial numbers but reporting only the June Meeting, the Meeting on 12 May having been cancelled General Strike. No meeting because of wartime accommodation difficulties. Reported meetings and due to printing re- strictions caused by fuel crisis.
Reported meetings and The report of Meeting , which followed the B. There were 6 numbers a year from Vols. In , Vol. In , with Vol. The text of the Bulletin was 67 pages in Vol. In the Rules were changed so that the Bulletin might contain descriptons of new species, although not communicated at a Meeting. It was decided in 9 that the Oological sub-section reports, up to 12 pages, could be printed in the Bulletin for 1 year and this arrangement was renewed in January I-XIII not now held by them.
The free list then included 14 eminent overseas ornithologists, but in June 5 this was reduced to 9, including 2 in Germany Reichenow and Schalow. Likewise the 5 Japanese Members in remained on the membership list until after , although communication with them can- not have been possible. The number of non-members subscribing to the Bulletin has increased from a few early in the century to 53 in and in , and work to increase the number of subscribers continues; the larger the circulation, the more pages a year it is possible to finance.
The Bulletin had a strong emphasis on descriptions of new forms and the status of known forms, although in the editorship of Dr. Low and a more narrative style can be seen. When Dr. Harrison became Editor in he had to set about inviting contributions from scientific ornithologists who did not attend Meetings, as the Committee was requiring larger numbers whilst very careful over costs , so that the Bulletin covered, as well as taxonomies, plumage variants, functional anatomy, pathology and some field ornithology.
The broadening of scope has con- tinued and in , of 39 main papers, 16 were on field observations and 14 on taxonomies. Editorship of the Bulletin has never been easy, because it has generally had to be published within about a fortnight of the Meeting covered; but this problem no longer remains since publication is quarterly and unrelated to Meetings. As a measure of the standing of the Club and the Bulletin, of the 14 Presi- dents of International Ornithological Congresses this century, all but 2 have have been Club Members or attended Meetings as guests and 9 have been authors in the Bulletin.
Address: R. Alexander I joined the British Ornithologists' Union in 1 and during the first years of my membership, as my home was at Tunbridge Wells and while I was up at Cambridge, I attended Club meetings fairly often. Later, as I did not live near London, my attendance became much less frequent. Recollec- tion of what happened in those far away days is naturally very patchy, so what follows merely recalls a few things that happen to have stuck in my memory after all these years.
The first few meetings that I attended were still presided over by Philip Lutley Sclater, aged about 90, the one active survivor of the founders of the Union. I cannot recall that he made any special interventions, so I gained no impression of him as a man or as an ornithologist. He was ob- viously very old, and when there was a row he feebly called out "order, order", with no visible effect. The row often was the well known altercation between Percy Bunyard and F.
Both of these men were egg-collectors, and at that time, as there was no separate Oologists Club, they brought their latest specimens of rare eggs to exhibit at the B. Bunyard got his eggs through professional collectors, and at one meeting he produced whathe claimed to be a clutch of Hobby Falco subbuteo eggs from Ireland.
Jourdain challenged his identification of the eggs and declared that it was often impossible to separate Kestrel F. I think Jourdain brought some of each species to the next meeting and challenged Bunyard to distinguish them, which no doubt Bunyard failed to do. Bunyard was deaf, so he had difficulty in hearing what Jourdain was saying. Such "rows" were not very edifying, and no doubt they were rare.
Walter later Lord Rothschild succeeded P. Sclater as chairman and was both efficient and benevolent. He and Dr. Ernst Hartert often had specimens of some new bird to show, lately received by the Tring Museum. I recall that at one time Rothschild was giving special attention to the Cassowary family, so several of these huge bird-skins were handed round whilst he discoursed about them.
Of the active members who were usually present, I recall E. Meade- Waldo, who lived at Edenbridge, and invited me to come over from Tun- bridge Wells to visit him; H. Richmond, a mathematics don at Kings, my own college, Cambridge; Admiral Hubert Lynes, who was working on the African cisticolas and probably told us about his work; H. Witherby, who had recently started his magazine, British Birds, and whom I already knew; and my uncle, H.
Wallis of Reading. There were two men with special knowledge of Australian birds ; G. Mathews, who was also working on oceanic birds, and Tom Iredale. Occasionally some member would report some rare bird observed in Britain, and in such cases Charles Oldham, who was the expert, would give his views of field identification. No doubt I have omitted several of the active members who broughi specimens or made communications. Indeed I have very little 15 [Bull. If you had some communication to offer, you ad- vised the Secretary in advance.
That was all. The only time I spoke to the Club in those early days was to record a Siberian Chiffchaff Vhylloscopus collybita tristis which I had been watching in a sheltered valley in west Kent, and which 2 or 3 other ornithologists had also watched. Wallis urged me to record it at the B.
This incident no doubt is trivial enough, but it perhaps illustrates how different a body the B. Some 10 years later, when H. Witherby was bringing up the subject of the status of the Willow Tit Varus montanus in Britain — some leading British ornithologists still expressed scepticism about its identity — B.
Tucker and I both gave our reports on its field identi- fication and behaviour; but I was rarely able to attend the meetings in the twenties, in those early days of the development of field ornithology and identification. In those benighted days there were no women members. Discussions about lady membership of the B. Turner and the Duchess of Bedford were given membership of the B. That came much later. Address: H.
Alexander, Crosslands, Kennett Sq. I became a member of the B. Percy Lowe, President of the B. It was a brilliant occasion. There were many distinguished guests, and, as usual, everyone wore full evening dress. The Meeting of the B. Sadly this evening proved to be the end of an era. My recollections consist of impressions I have retained of some of the outstanding personalities of the pre-war days, and I hope the following notes on a few of them may reflect sides of their characters perhaps little known to succeeding generations.
Ernst Hartert was one of the most outstanding figures in ornithology at the turn of the century. He was born in Hamburg in , and became interested in natural history at an early age. As his father was a General in the Prussian Army he spent much of his youth in various garrisons, and was educated at the University of Konigsberg. Dresser took him to see Lord Rothschild. This was an historic meeting which had great influence on British ornithology, for in Lord Rothschild appointed Ernst Hartert the Curator of Birds in his museum in Tring.
Hartert and his wife both became naturalised British subjects and their son was educated at Oxford. The first World War proved a time of intense sorrow for the Harterts — not only was their son killed in action in 6 while serving in the British army, but many people shunned them.
Hartert joined the B. He was awarded the highest honour of the B. His short stature, snow white hair and clear complexion made him a striking figure at the meetings of the Club, and when stressing a point he always pointed his forefinger downwards.
When efforts were made to restore the International Ornithological Congress it was unanimously agreed that Dr. Hartert was the only one who could pull the various nationalities together again. He was therefore elected President of the 6th International Ornithological Congress held in Copen- hagen in — which proved an outstanding success.
It was here that I first met him and from then on he and his wife treated me as an adopted daughter. They lived in a pleasant house at Tring within 5 minutes of the Museum, and often on Sundays I travelled by the very slow stopping train from London to visit them. Hartert met me at the station, and we went to Tring Reservoirs in the morning, and spent the afternoon looking at skins in his room at the Museum.
Sometimes Lord Rothschild would join in and Hartert would growl "He reads all my letters". Hartert was a perfec- tionist and all his work was meticulously thorough. Hartert, kept the library, and everything else, in impeccable order. She once told me that when there was a great deal of Italian literature, Dr. Hartert had said "Now you will learn Italian" and this she did. Hartert's last expedition was in to North Africa, accompanied by the Marquess Hachisuka, but he became ill and had to return.
He was advised to retire and that year he left Tring for Berlin, where he was given accommodation to continue his work in the Zoological Museum. Professor Stresemann told me that when the collection at Tring was sold to America, Hartert came into his office with tears in his eyes.
As he refused to cross the Polish corridor we went by boat to Pillau. From 1 his father was Commandant at Pillau, vhere he had a large official house with a wonderful view of the sea, 17 [Bull. In this Hartert had been allowed a room for his bird studies and collections, and as the house was still extant we looked through the windows at the room in which he had spent so many happy hours. In his youth, in order to increase his pocket money he shot and set up mammals which he sold to the keeper of the Inn "Zum Eltis", on the edge of the har- bour.
We naturally visited the Inn and Dr. Hartert was certain that a marten he had stuffed would still be in existence. He did not find it easily, but finally he took a chair, clambered onto it, and on a high shelf to his great joy found his marten.
Following a three day meeting in Konigsberg, an excursion was made to Rossitten on the Kurische Nehrung and to his great pleasure he again visited the 'Tummelplatze'. On our return to Konigsberg on 6 October we had some hours to spare before leaving for Berlin and I suggested he might like to visit the Museum again, but he very firmly replied: "Certainly not, I would like to go to a movie". At a meeting of the Council of the D. Hartert was elected a new Honorary President, but he was suddenly taken ill again and died on u November He had not visited Pillau and Konigsberg for 50 years, and it seemed that his life had gone a full circle.
Lord Rothschild Walter Rothschild, a member of the wealthy international banking family, and his brother Nathaniel, were the first of that family to be interested in natural history, Walter chiefly in ornithology and his brother in entomology. The establishment of a private museum for natural history on the scale of the Tring Museum, except for the Alexander Koenig Museum in Bonn, is probably without parallel.
When Ernst Hartert was brought to Tring by Mr. Dresser in Lord Rothschild realised the potentialities of this outstanding young ornithologist in appointing him Curator of Birds of the museum. With the meticulous scientific approach and thoroughness of Ernst Hartert and the drive, imagination and wealth of Lord Rothschild an invaluable partnership was formed.
Many collecting expeditions were made, a long series of standard works and other publications were produced, and sensational advances in ornithology were achieved. Lord Rothschild was President of the B. He made many contributions to the meetings, perhaps the most striking when, as reported in the Bulletin, he exhibited a full-sized model of the Moa Dinornis maximus Owen, together with a drawing of the Moa feathers and a photograph of a cast of the skeleton in the Royal College of Surgeons.
He explained that the height, 9 ft. Pycraft expressed his keen appreciation of this restoration, remarking that Lord Rothschild had added the keystone to the work began by Owen. Philip Manson Bahr, giving a short history of the Club in 1, related that Lord Rothschild arrived with his model in an open taxi much to the amaze- ment of a gaping crowd which collected at the entrance to Pagani's.
Up till the meetings were held at Pagani's — a somewhat sleezy Italian restaurant where even the waiters' coats were stained with grease and the [Bull. Story has it that Lord Rothschild made no complaints but secretly ordered a special menu for himself, as he averred he was on a diet.
The following extracts from Jean Delacour's autobiography give some idea of Lord Rothschild's character: "Whenever I returned from a collecting trip my material was unpacked at the British Museum, which was the most convenient place for me to study birds, and Lord Rothschild would be there in large flowing morning coat.
When treasures appeared from the cases, either something that was new, or something he did not possess he would whisper in my ear "May I have one? I gave him a specimen whenever I could spare it and it quickly disappeared in a deep pocket of the morning coat; he would be as pleased as a child. There were, in particular, a few Bronze-tailed Peacock-pheasants, a rare Sumatran species.
Lord Rothschild's curiosity was awakened as keenly as ever; he had to see those, so far, unknown chicks. That did not matter, he would walk, which he did rather painfully. When we arrived, out of breath, I called the keeper in charge and asked him where the chicks were. But he was not beaten — down we went and up again. He finally saw the little black objects; he was tired, but perfectly satisfied".
Though chiefly concerned with the collection of specimens, Lord Roths- child was also interested in conservation, to which he gave much support. In these days when there is so much emphasis on threatened species it is significant that Walter Rothschild was the first to produce a book on extinct birds. Lowe Like so many of the ornithologists of that epoch, Percy Lowe was a medical man, emanating from Cambridge and Guys Hospital. He served as a Medical Officer in the Boer War 1 and it was during his time in South Africa that he started studying and collecting birds.
After the war he was appointed as private physician to Sir Frederick Johnston, by whom he was taken for many voyages on his yacht collecting birds. On his return from service in the R. His main interest was classification, anatomy, and osteology and when W. Pycraft retired, he took charge of the spirit and osteological collections.
He was not an orthodox ornithologist and spent a great deal of time in research on anatomy, especially of Sruthious birds, about which he wrote many papers. He retired from the Museum in but was allotted a room in which to continue his researches. He played a great part in bird preservation and was one of the members of the inaugural meeting of the International Committee now Council for Bird Preservation held in London in , but it is with the preservation of wildfowl that his name is most closely associated.
He co-operated with Pro- fessor Einar Lonnberg of Sweden in in drawing attention to the serious ic; [Bull. In he succeeded in bringing about an international Governmental Con- ference to consider the whole question of wildfowl, which was held at the Foreign Office in London. I remember him saying: "I want to see the whole skies black with duck", but he was determined on a scientific and practical approach on an international scale.
Being a keen shot himself he achieved an invaluable link in understanding and confidence between sportsmen and conservationists. This Committee secured the passing of a special Act for the Protection of Ducks and Geese in , and among other successes instituted the ringing of ducks at duck-decoys to trace migrations, and initiated national and international wildfowl counts. It is un- doubtedly in no small part due to the foresight and drive of Percy Lowe that wide conservation measures for wildfowl exist today.
Lowe joined the B. Treasurer , Editor and Chairman and was President of the B. He had a charming personality and sense of humour which endeared him both to British and foreigners alike, even though at times they disagreed with his theories. His wife, a daughter of E. Meade-Waldo, took an active part in his interests and after he died in remained a member of the B.
Carmichael Low Dr. George Carmichael Low played a great part in the affairs of the Club. He was Hon. Secretary and Treasurer , Hon. Secretary , Vice Chairman and Editor of the Bulletin and His contributions to the Bulletin were constant, wide and varied. In addition, he was meticulously accurate in his editing, a characteristic which was further demonstrated in the section of Aves in the Centenary Volume of the Zoological Society of London , for which he was responsible.
Originating from Angus he always retained his strong and particularly personal accent. He formed one of a select trio who observed birds every Sunday from the causeway at Staines Reservoir, the other two being brother Scots — W. Glegg, a brewer, and A. Holte Macpherson a director of Watneys Brewery.
To accompany this trio was an education, but sometimes also an endurance test of the biting winds. Glegg was Hon. Secretary of the B. Every year a party was given by Watneys to view the Boat Race, at which champagne as well as beer flowed. Holte Macpherson, an Oxford man, took this race very much to heart and when Cambridge won he always consoled himself by going on to Richmond Park in the hope of seeing the first Redstart.
Some remained longer, and these included the Scottish trio and myself. It was an unforgettable experience; on excursions they each carried a telescope and umbrella and there were often arguments as to where a picnic lunch should be. Carmichael Low once finally authoritatively ordered us on to what turned out to be an ant-heap.
Occasionally Dr. Barrington, whose bequest to the Club members will remember appreciatively, was allowed to join the party. He was a distin- guished obstetrician, though he disliked women, but under his gruff exterior there was a kindly nature. He usually carried a blue mackintosh folded up into a tight roll.
Though he had lost most of his teeth he would never wear his dentures, and when I asked him about this he replied "I prefer to keep them in the top drawer of my chest of drawers" — a most tragic habit, since he died from asphyxiation by a piece of meat at a Medical dinner.
It was announced on the Agenda of the meeting of the Club on 1 2 February that Dr. Carmichael Low would give a short description of his recent tour round the world with the British Medical Association and an account of some of the more interesting birds seen on the journey.
He told us that "the trip was a wonderful one in every way and lasted from July to November , over species and sub-species being recorded". He showed a large number of pictures on the epidiascope and though the majority of these showed lovely girls sitting under sun-umbrellas, he was quite oblivious to the amusement he thus evoked.
At the meeting on 24 October he exhibited an Andean Gull, which he explained had "survived for a little over 4 years in the London Zoo and died eventually of congestion and oedema of the lungs", adding that he had "got" the body which he proceeded to pass round on a plate. Story has it that during the last war Dr. Low was leaving the Natural History Museum when an air-raid warning sounded, at which he promptly opened his umbrella.
Sir Philip Manson-Bahr Philip Manson-Bahr was a great personality with his burly figure, boom- ing voice and irrepressible sense of humour. His abilities and interests covered a wide spectrum. He was a specialist in tropical medicine of inter- national repute and among the positions he held were Director of the Clinical Division of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, President of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and consulting physician to the Colonial Office and Crown Agents for the Colonies.
When he practised as a consultant in Harley Street, his cheerful manner, combined with infectious confidence, was of no mean help to his patients, and many of those who returned from the tropics with some malady have said how much they owed to him. He was a gifted artist, and even during his war service 19 in Egypt and Palestine his prowess was not wasted, and he spent most of his free time in painting.
Appropriately he was President of the Medical Art Society. He was also a first-rate photographer, and on 16 May 1 when he gave a talk to the Club on reminiscences of 50 years, the slides he showed of photo- 21 [Bull. Philip Manson-Bahr was involved in ornithology from his undergraduate days in Cambridge when, as he has related, about the year he attended the historic Sunday evening meetings in Professor Alfred Newton's room in Magdalene. He was a Vice-President of the B.
Wadley, engendered a very friendly atmosphere, with large attendances at the dinners. He studied at Cambridge at Magdelene College and joined the B. Hartert on his last trip to North Africa in He wrote many papers, though to begin with some of them were in somewhat curious English. He was friendly and gay and drove an enormous touring Bentley, in which he was almost eclipsed, his head barely showing above the driving seat.
He regularly attended meetings of the Club and obviously enjoyed his time in England. I remember him saying that the most tragic thing in his life was when his father died and he had to go back to Japan to take his seat in the Upper House of the Diet House of Lords. He remained a strong anglophil, and the war caused him great distress. He did everything he could to help his friends in Europe and other countries, and remained a member of the Club throughout the war and the years following, and con- tinued to contribute to the Bulletin till his sudden death in Jourdain The Reverend F.
Jourdain delighted in finding mistakes in other Members' contributions, and his remark "this is not quite correct" was often the opening of an acrimonious discussion. He was an inveterate egg collector and his chief victim was P. Bunyard, also an egg collector, who was stone deaf and therefore at a great disadvantage. A heated wrangle between the two was a frequent event.
An unusual incident stands out vividly in my mind. At a meeting of the Club on 8 December , Jourdain spoke on the White Stork, with special reference to recent experiments in young birds were introduced and also eggs into Herons' nests in England which he severely criticised at length. This was followed by a lively discussion in which among others Dr.
Bannerman, the Marquess of Tavistock and Dr. Landsborough Thomson took part. I had the temerity to join in, pointing out that those who had achieved successful rearing of the young Storks in Herons' nests in England in had presumably had the benefit of the experience of German ornitho- logists. Miss Barclay- Smith accepted the invitation. Blackbourne, had been responsible for the Stork experiment and I had forwarded him a copy of the Bulletin containing Mr.
Jourdain's speech, expressing my doubts as to the accuracy of the statements. Thanks to Robert Blockey I therefore dared, with great pleasure, to refute Jourdain's various statements with a heavy artillery of information, much to the satisfaction of other members of the Club, many of whom felt he was taking an unfair advantage by attacking me from the Chair.
Jourdain actually looked discomfited and his comeback in an effort to preserve his self esteem was so weak and unconvincing that it was evident Pastor pugnax had been completely routed. Mackworth-Praed Cyril Mackworth-Praed was very unassuming and achieved a great deal in a quiet way. Probably his greatest contribution to ornithology was the publication of the African Handbooks of Birds, for which he so successfully employed Captain Claud Grant to act as co-author.
He was awarded the Union Medal in , having been the B. Secretary and Treasurer , Treasurer and Vice-President For the Club he was Hon. Treasurer , Vice- Chairman and Chairman , long and creditable service. With H. Gilbert he first started ringing wildfowl, at the decoy at his old home at Orielton in Pembrokeshire and later the Duck Adoption Scheme to raise funds for ringing ducks was his brilliant idea. He was a first class shot and when he led the British Team for the Clay Pigeon Shooting contest during the International Hunting Exhibition in Berlin in , he came back with all the prizes.
Reminiscences of the Club by David Banner man These reminiscences were kindly written during Dr Bannerman's last illness and are pub- lished through the kindness of Mrs Bannerman. To take one's memories back to before the commencement of the First World War, by which time I had occupied the official posts in the B. One of the most valuable functions the dinners performed was the opportunity afforded its members of meeting regularly the leading orni- thologists of the day and of listening to the addresses they gave and examining the specimens they exhibited; for those were the days when collecting was at its zenith and at almost every meeting of the Club new species and countless subspecies were brought from Tring by Lord Rothschild or by the officers of the Natural History Museum, especially by W.
Ogilive-Grant, then Keeper of the National Collections, for the edification of those present. Harry Witherby, usually accompanied by his wife, was another who in- variably had something to interest us. Lady Members of the B. The two Scottish Hon. Lady Members, Miss Baxter and Miss Rintoul, lived too far away to honour the Club meetings with their presence, but the explorer Maud Haviland, when not on the Yenesei, did at rare intervals attend the dinners.
The Duchess of Bedford and Dr. Emilie Snethlage of the Goeldi Museum, Para, of Brazil, made up this distinguished assembly, making up in quality what it lacked in quantity. I knew them all with the exception of the member from Para. We could of course invite lady guests and very bored some of them must have been after the dinner was over and we settled to more serious things, not to speak of the arguments which arose between prominent members as to how the Cuckoo laid her eggs in a ball-shaped nest with the small entrance hole at the side!
Jourdain , Percy Bunyard as deaf as a post, wielding a long-handled hearing aid and one of the Alexander brothers were always prominent antagonists on such occasions; so heated did these arguments become that on one occasion during my Chairmanship I felt obliged in case of blood shed to forbid any mention of the Cuckoo at our next monthly meeting ; at which announce- ment Mr.
Bunyard leapt to his feet and said to me "You are the most impartial Chairman" when he meant the very opposite! The laughter this produced did not improve the atmosphere! The meetings were held in those early days in an Italian restaurant, mainly I guessed because Lord Rothschild was then our Chairman and the Italian owner of the restaurant knew better than we members did what his Lordship liked to eat! On nights when I sat next to him, which as Editor of the Bulletin I often did, I noted with amusement and sometimes with envy the dishes surreptitiously placed before him.
One of those dishes caused him a restless night and he w T as then less averse to a move to the much more convenient for most of us meeting place, the Rembrandt Hotel, to which Percy Lowe and I had manoeuvred the Club before we too could fall victim to the Italian cooking. We were still holding our monthly meetings in the Soho area when the thorny question of the ladies becoming eligible for full membership of the B.
Lord Rothschild himself feared the Club meetings would de- generate into social gatherings of the B. The Club meetings and the discussions which ensued after the coffee had been cleared were taken very seriously and my previous comments must not give the impression that we were always scrapping with one another. The reverse is very much the case, as perusal of our Bulletin will reveal.
Those who had brought specimens of birds discussed them with a view to their description being published in the Bulletin, which was founded mainly for this function, enabling the describers to gain priority of name for their discoveries. Stuart Baker, P. Bunyard and our good friend Pastor pugnax himself contributed in full measure. The dispute over the eggs of the Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius and the Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus, which have the habit of sometimes laying eggs indistinguishable from one another in Mallorca, with consequent accusation that the collector had mistaken the parent bird as she left the nest, brought several combatants including Jourdain, Witherby and Captain Philip Munn into the arena and produced a stream of correspondence in the Ibis, from which the editor of the Bulletin was luckily spared.
Those were the days when the meetings of the Club were well worth attending and now when no bird is allowed to be shot on pain of being shot oneself, and no egg permitted by law to be collected, I am not sure whether the members pass their time so fruitfully once the Chairman has announced "Gentlemen you may smoke".
My recollections are mostly of the very happy gatherings and of the distinguished ornithologists from home and abroad who added so greatly to our enjoyment - and knowledge - such as Willie Sclater, the best editor of the Ibis we have ever had son of Dr. Philip Lutley Sclater of lasting fame in the world of science , who was typical of the best our Club could produce.
When in I left the Bird Room of the B. I could never attend the B. The Bulletin still performs its valuable functions and keeps me in touch with the present outlook on ornithology, which has changed out of all recognition. It was a section of our publication eagerly read and to which we looked forward, keeping us in touch with current events and new discoveries.
The cost of printing was no doubt the reason why such news is no longer available in either the Bulletin, nor yet in the Ibis where so much space is now devoted to material which appears often to be more suited to a book on algebra than a journal of international importance dealing with birds.
Our Bulletin, under wise editorial management, has continued to perform the function for which it was founded on the same useful lines. Long may it continue to do so. May I end these recollections of the distant past by wishing the officers and members of the B. Jane Bannerman writes : I remember in the late twenties writing to Harry Witherby and asking if I could take part in the new ringing scheme.
I did not, but having free days at a time when domestic staff was amply available, I started to work on birds. Phil Hollom, then a boy, needed a car for some work on gull roosts, so he drove my car and taught me about birds on the way. Spending long winters in Arizona and California, I used to go bird watching with a retired woman professor. Later I was put up for the B. That was about and I remember asking at a dinner who various members were and the reply about D.
Women had only just been allowed to join the B. I went on several excursions to France and Switzerland with the Witherbys and was able to repay this kindness by getting the plates of Volume V of the Handbook out of Holland on the very last ship before the port was taken by the enemy. I always enjoyed the monthly dinners - J. Chapin brought the first skin of the African peacock to one notable meeting.
The London blitz ended the meetings and my too few years as a member ended later when I moved to Scotland. Some experiences of the Club by C. Benson Although I joined the Club more than 40 years ago, I have not attended many meetings, chiefly because I spent nearly all of the period in Africa. Since then I have lived in Cambridge, even so, relatively remote from London.
To compensate for this I hope , I have contributed frequently to the bulletin. More significantly in the present context, I have met many members of the Club, some of them long deceased. I first attended a meeting in November 1, as the guest of Miss E. Turner even though, cf. I had graduated at Cambridge the previous May, and had met her frequently at meetings of the Cambridge Bird Club she was also instrumental in my visiting Texel Island in September My chief recollection of that November 1 meeting was an exhibition of specimens by Lord Rothschild, although I never met him personally, and never otherwise set eyes on him.
I first met him at the Cambridge sewage farm, famous in those days for itinerant waders. He helped me greatly to cultivate a discerning eye, not only for the commoner British birds but to stand me in good stead when I arrived in Africa. Later, while on leaves of absence, I only met him casually, although he was always kindness and geniality personified. On this first occasion he told me that I would have plenty of opportunities for advancing knowledge, although the day of discovery of new species was over, a qualification that has proved not wholly correct.
In the Bulletin alone, from the area covered by his Systema Avium Ethiopicarum, some 30 new species have been described, of which about two-thirds have stood the test of time. The latter, although unillustrated except for a map, has brief descriptions giving the salient characters of each species, so clear that I was able to identify the majority without recourse to collecting. Sclater's work was useful as a guide to what species to look for, not included in Belcher's.
Partly as a result, in the next 20 years nearly species were added to the Nyasaland list. Recently he reminded me that he had left Cholo Mt. He may have been the first European to have done so. He was at the time on his important tour of northern Mozambique Ibis, In I sent a number of specimens to the British Museum Natural History , promptly identified by him. In too I first met D. He was responsible for the positive discovery in July of A.
Long afterwards, Macpherson subsidised publication of The Birds of Malawi, by my wife and myself , generously stipulating that all proceeds from sales were to be credited to the National Fauna Preservation Society of Malawi. In I first met J. We have been in frequent contact ever since. Coming on leave to England in September , I took to the British Museum a further collection of specimens. By that time Vincent had returned to Africa. However, N.
Bench Usher to help you work out your collection. You must write up the results". The same evening he took me as his guest to the meeting of the Club of 9 October Bull. My chief recollection is of a talk by W. Sclater on Reg Moreau's recent explorations in northern Tanganyika now Tanzania , including the discovery of Anthreptes pallidi- gaster pp.
Not in the record, the acting Chairman, Hugh Whistler, commented that we could expect "something really good from Mr Moreau", a prediction amply fulfilled. To return to the main point, however, I duly took Kinnear's advice, perhaps a turning point in my ornithological career, and worked for several weeks in the museum, and thereafter, whenever I was on leave, I spent as much time as possible there; indeed, it became almost a mecca for me.
This also gave me the opportunity to meet some 27 [Bull. Grant I did not meet his collaborator C. Mackworth-Praed until , Rear-Admiral H. Lynes and J. Macdonald then recently appointed to the professional staff. Grant and later Mackworth-Praed always took a close interest in my activities for the remainder of their lives. So too did Lynes, so far as cisticolas were concerned by that time he had come to refer to any other birds as "dogs' bodies". I heard much of that colourful character from Rodney Wood never a member of the Club, but an all-round field-naturalist, resident in Nyasaland for many years , who accompanied the admiral on one of his last African tours in about On one occasion, when they were somewhere in southern Kenya, they came to a particularly fragile-looking bridge.
So Wood, who was driving their lorry, suggested that the admiral might first cross on foot; to which the retort was, "Not at all, if we are to go down, we'll all do so together". In the event, the bridge stood up to the test. I also heard much of Admiral Lynes from Capt. Cochrane, R. He accompanied the admiral on forays to Sedgemoor in search of Marsh Warblers Acrocephalus palustris. He said that he and others had difficulty in equalling Lynes 's enthusiasm and energy. The Schumanns are offended by the frosty reception given to both his music and her playing in the Imperial city.
April Robert begins work on the overture of a new projected opera, Genoveva. He completes work on the Szenen aus Goethes Faust. It is offered as a birthday present to Clara Schumann on 13 September. He travels to Leipzig for the funeral on 6 November. He continues to work on the opera throughout the year until he completes it in August, and Clara prepares the piano score.
There is a marked increase in his composition of choral music. February The outbreak of revolutionary unrest in Germany. These waves of insurrection will affect Schumann more directly in in Dresden. The politically active Wagner flees Dresden and takes refuge with Liszt in Weimar. The Schumann family retreats to neighbouring Maxen, and then Kreischa, to avoid any danger. Not a particularly glorious moment for Robert, who had once imagined himself fit and able to man the barricades.
Parts of Op 79 are composed in Kreischa. They rent a new apartment. A period of continual ill-health. Schumann finds it increasingly difficult to conduct the choir and orchestra. August A visit to Antwerp where Schumann judges a vocal competition and Brussels. The couple lived for many years in London. He complains constantly of illness and depression. Manfred is conducted by Liszt in Weimar. November Schumann experiences head-noises and strange singing in the ears.
April Robert experiments with the latest craze for the paranormal and develops an enthusiasm for table-tapping. Schumann plans to move to Berlin or Vienna. Visit to Holland. He suffers bouts of panic and hallucinations.
This is a suicide attempt. Robert is put under the care of doctors and two male nurses. Clara leaves the house to live with friends. These reports settle once and for all, and despite various theories to the contrary over many years, that Schumann was indeed suffering from tertiary syphilis. The composer is forbidden to see his wife. He will stay there for two years.
July Robert sends a bouquet of flowers to Clara. He is permitted to receive a letter from her in August and replies in September. He writes more often to Clara, heartbreaking letters for the reader. In December Joachim visits the composer. As a Christmas present she sends him portraits of Brahms and Joachim. In January Schumann composes a fugue. When Brahms visits him in April he is unable to understand a word that Schumann says to him. On that visit Brahms is completely devastated by what he sees.
Clara, long forbidden by Dr Richarz to visit her afflicted husband, sees him for the last time on 27 June between 6 and 7 in the evening. He smiles at her and with the greatest difficulty puts his arm around her—he can no longer easily move his limbs. For the next two days Clara is by his side. He is never still and is in constant, writhing torment. He has not eaten for days, but is able to suck drops of wine from her finger.
Robert Schumann dies on 29 July and is buried at Endenich on the evening of 31 July. Clara Schumann dies almost forty years later on 20 May Of her seven children, two—Felix and Julie—predecease her. Her closest friend, Johannes Brahms, survives her by less than eleven months. Le texte est du jeune Schumann en personne. Bonne nuit, Agnes. Il entreprend les Variations Abegg pour piano, op. En juin et juillet, il passe beaucoup de temps avec elle, et ses sentiments pour Ernestine se refroidissent.
Il compose la Fantaisie en ut majeur, op. Le verdict est attendu pour le Nouvel An. Les Dichterliebe op. Il termine les Szenen aus Goethes Faust. Il compose nettement plus de musique chorale. Ils louent un nouvel appartement. Schumann envisage de partir pour Berlin ou Vienne. Voyage en Hollande. Clara quitte la maison pour vivre chez des amis. Il est interdit au compositeur de voir sa femme. Il y restera deux ans. Elle trouve que ces communications «ouvrent mes blessures».
En septembre , le Dr. En janvier , Schumann compose une fugue. Il dit «Je connais» mais ne peut pas dire «te». Clara Schumann mourra presque quarante ans plus tard, le 20 mai Son ami le plus proche, Johannes Brahms, lui survivra de moins de onze mois. Von bis tritt er hier als Pianist, Dichter und Redner auf. Zu dieser Zeit ist er auf literarischem Gebiet aktiver als in der Musik. Er beginnt, einen Roman mit dem Titel Selene zu schreiben.
Die Weinende Anhang M2 Nr. Der Text stammt vom jungen Schumann selbst. Clara ist bereits als Wunderkind allgemein bekannt. Am April erreichen sie Augsburg, wo sie Dr. Mai, wo sie Jean Pauls Witwe besuchen. Anfang Juni begegnet er erneut Agnes Carus, in die er sich verliebt hat. Gute Nacht, Agnes. In diesem Jahr beginnt er auch mit der Komposition von Papillons op. Im Oktober kann er sein intensives Klavierstudium wegen einer Verletzung der rechten Hand nicht fortsetzen.
Er arbeitet an zwei Klaviersonaten in fis-Moll op. Im September reist Ernestine nach Asch. Die vier Buchstaben dieses Namens finden sich auch in seinem Nachnamen Kryptografie und Wortspiele dieser Art waren Schumann stets wichtig und spielten sogar eine bedeutende Rolle in seinen Kompositionen. Dieser Zufall inspiriert ihn zum Carnaval op.
Im September trifft er zum ersten Mal Chopin. Clara spielt wieder die Sonate in fis-Moll, und am Sie tauschen den ersten Kuss am Februar stirbt. Er schickt Clara ein Exemplar der ihr gewidmeten gedruckten Sonate in fis-Moll. Er komponiert die Fantasie in C-Dur op. Clara wiederum ist verstimmt wegen einer unangemessenen Rezension ihres Klavierkonzerts op. September zum ersten Mal nach siebzehn Monaten. Unterbrechungen in der Korrespondenz aufgrund der Heimlichkeit ihrer Beziehung wie im Oktober dieses Jahres sind unvermeidlich und lassen Schumann jedes Mal verzweifeln.
Robert und Clara treffen sich heimlich im Glauben, schon bald auf ewig vereint zu sein. Oktober ein. Was wenige Monate zuvor noch Hoffnungen weckte, scheint nun in Pessimismus zu zerrinnen. Erst Mitte August wird sich das Paar wiedersehen. Clara ist mittlerweile ihrem Vater entfremdet und reist nur in Begleitung einer Zofe nach Paris.
Ende August kann das Paar sich endlich wieder treffen. Oktober erscheint Wieck widerum nicht vor Gericht. Dezember erscheinen Clara, Robert und Wieck vor Gericht. Das Urteil wird im Neuen Jahr erwartet. Ab dem 4. September befindet sich Robert bei Clara in Weimar. Januar Robert skizziert die Sinfonie Nr. Januar und Am selben Abend spielt Clara ein Klavierkonzert von Chopin. Juni Schumann arbeitet an seinen drei Streichquartetten op. Er willigt ein, am Leipziger Konservatorium zu unterrichten.
Die Zeit vom April bis 8. Mai verbringen sie in Moskau, und am Hans Christian Andersen besucht den Komponisten in Leipzig. Dichterliebe op. Juni—Juli Schumann setzt die Arbeit am Klavierkonzert op. Februar Geburt des ersten Schumann-Sohns Emil — November unter Mendelssohn. Juni Arbeit am ersten Klaviertrio in d-Moll op. Er reist nach Leipzig zur Beerdigung am 6. Er arbeitet das ganze Jahr daran, bis er sie im August fertigstellt, und Clara schreibt den Klavierauszug.
Er komponiert deutlich mehr Chormusik. November—Dezember Schumann beendet die Orchestrierung von Manfred op. Teile von op. Sie mieten eine neue Wohnung. Oktober—Dezember Schumann komponiert das Cellokonzert op. Eine Phase fortgesetzt schlechter Gesundheit. Elise, Ferdinand und Julie heirateten und hatten selbst Kinder.
Liszt dirigiert Manfred in Weimar. September Komposition der Violinphantasie op. September—Oktober Komposition des Violinkonzerts in d-Moll. Schumann plant einen Umzug nach Berlin oder Wien. Reise nach Holland. Robert wird in die Obhut eines Arztes und zweier Pfleger gegeben. Clara zieht zu Freunden. Franz Richarz — befindet. Im August darf er einen Brief von ihr empfangen, den er im September beantwortet. Richarz, dass der Zustand ihres Mannes unheilbar ist.
Im Januar komponiert Schumann eine Fuge. Als Brahms ihn im April besucht, kann er kein Wort von Schumann verstehen. Brahms schenkt Schumann zu seinem Geburtstag am 8. Richarz schon lange keinen Zugang mehr zu ihrem Mann gehabt hatte, sieht ihn am Juni zwischen 6 und 7 Uhr abends.
Robert Schumann stirbt am Juli und wird am Abend des Juli in Endenich beerdigt. Mai Von ihren sieben Kindern sterben Felix und Julie vor ihr. Don't show me this message again. This substantial and roomy dwelling doubles as home and business premises, and is rented by the Schumanns between and August Schumann accompanies Clara on a concert tour through Germany.
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